One Hundred Years of Military Science at the University of Delaware
By Major Rolf J. Wysock Assistant Professor of Military Science Army ROTC, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware 19716 July 15, 1989
Contents Introduction Chapter I. Beginning of Military Training A. Difficult Beginning B. Morrill Act C. Official Beginning of Military Science D. Army Officers Assigned II. Beginning of a New Era A. Progress B. Meeting Military Requirements C. Enchanting Appearance III. The Start of R.O.T.C. A. Established by Law B. Specific Requirements C. The War Years D. Post War Years E. Camp Requirements IV. R.O.T.C. Becomes a Coast Artillery Unit A. Addition of New Equipment B. Anti-ROTC Countermeasures C. Fixed Military Training Requirements D. Sophomore's ROTC Refusal E. Major Glassburn's Rebuttal F. Disposition of Punishment G. New Uniform Appearance H. Conscientious Objectors I. U of D Selected as War Information Center J. Army Specialized Training Reservists Program V. Post World War II A. Army Taken Serious Look at ROTC B. Veterans Encouraged to Join C. Air Force ROTC D. Decreased Enrollment VI. Revolutionary Changes A. Commutation of Subsistence B. ROTC Requirements C. Women Eligible to be commissioned D. "Pershing Rifles" E. Changed to Artillery F. ROTC Moves to Present Location H. Scabbard and Blade I. Academic Credits Lowered J. Voluntary ROTC Controversy VII. A Decade of Change and Controversy A. Weapons Display B. Large Enrollment C. Compulsory ROTC Questions D. Ranger Unit Established E. Physical Protest VIII. A New Era in ROTC A. ROTC Becomes Voluntary B. ROTC Detachment Considered for Active Duty C. Dining-In D. Removal of Restrictions IX. Women Now Eligible to Enroll in ROTC A. Women in ROTC B. Cadets Place First in Summer Camp C. ROTC Starts at Salisbury State College D. ROTC Starts at Delaware State College E. Student Commitment F. Construction of Air Rifle/Pistol Range X. Recognizing and Rewarding Outstanding Performances A. List of Awards and Eligibility B. ROTC Ribbons XI. Recruiting and Retention Efforts of the ROTC A. Extra Curriculum Activities B. Specific Activities Conclusion: APPENDIX A List of Professors of Military Science
INTRODUCTION Since the beginning of time of recorded history, a call for some profession of arms has been demanded and applied in the solution of social conflicts. Human nature, being what it is, precedes world peace and forced that Utopian thought to remain in the realm of dreams. It is inconceivable in the modern world to have a nation that is not willing to resort to physical force to some degree in regulating its societies.
The bearing of arms among men for the purpose of fighting other men is found as far back as we can see. Service under arms has been seen at some times and in some places as a calling re¬sembling that of the priesthood in its dedication. This view has never wholly disappeared. Service under arms has also been very widely regarded as a profession and also here and there, less happily, as no more than an occu¬pation. Such service, however, has never ceased to display a strong element of the vocational. 1
The continued increased demands upon the military have channeled into the ranks of profession. It has evolved into "a complex of institutions peculiar to itself, an educational pattern adapted to its own specific needs, a career structure of its own and a distinct place in the society which has brought it forth." 2 The American system and those of many westernnations, allows a reasonable transition in returning to the civilian sector.
America's involvement in armed conflict since the inception of a united country demanded the prerequisite of competent military leadership. Personal selection, social status, financial affluence and favoritism, once the norm and accepted method of officer selection, no longer met the requirements by the close of the 18th century.
Even though many capable individuals captained the helm of the old system, the requirements of the new Army necessitated the assurance of a consistent quality officer corps. The establishment of our democracy also insisted upon its military officers to be beyond re¬proach, in that an officer's accomplishments were a product of his merits. Every citizen who satisfies the established prerequisites has the opportunity to become a commissioned officer.
Today's highly professional officer corps had its inception in 1802 when congress approved the establish¬ment of the U.S. Military Academy. Futuristic views revealed that a set number of yearly graduates from West Point would not suffice to command a sizable clash of arms. Although this nation has its prominence in this world, it has suffered under incompetent military leadership and paid the price for unpreparedness in the Civil War, Cuba, Korea, and Vietnam.
The first degree granting, institution that felt the need to incorporate military training in its curriculum was Norwich University in Vermont. In 1820 Captain Alden Partridge, himself a West Point graduate, formulated the Military Academy at the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy. The academy changed to its present name in 1834. Five years later, in 1839, the Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia became the second degree granting institution followed closely by the Citadel, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1842.
The advent of the Civil War in our country brought with it the revelation that there was a "need for in¬creased educational facilities, including a requirement for military training." 3 This concept was brought to fruition with the introduction and ratification of the Morrill Act of 1986, known as the Land Grant Act.
Although military training was unheard of in the Old Delaware College chartered in 1833, many graduates from the institution did an outstanding job representing the state of Delaware and the institution starting in 1839 until the Civil War, Delaware graduates participated in the Mexican War as soldiers and midshipmen, as Assistant Army Surgeons or as soldiers fighting in Indian wars.
"The Civil War furnished the opportunity for many of the graduates to prove their patriotism or stand up for what they believed to be right. They served with bravery on both sides of the struggle." * One of these was William H. Purnell, later President of the University of Dela¬ware. "After the Battle of Bull Run he revised a regiment of Infantry, two batteries of Artillery, and two companies of Cavalry, called "Purnell's Legion." 5 Still others were cited for bravery, served as surgeons, chaplains, hospital steward and even in the Naval Service. Of the 33 that served in the Civil War, 18 served on the Union side.
During the 20th Century, graduates of the University of Delaware did more than their share in serving in the nation's military during our various conflicts.
In order to negate yesterday's mistakes and need tomorrow's challenge and safeguard our nation, the U.S. Army must demand an esoteric selection process of its future leadership. Time, once an available commodity, has been eliminated by technological advancement in weaponry and equipment. Preparation for an eventual conflict was started yesterday and must now continually be improved to respond with a determination to win. Answering the call of the officer corps in the Army ROTC by producing approximately 75% of all new Second Lieutenants, the program is unique in that is offers a potential cadet a part of both worlds. A non-regimented civilian environment permits pursuing a discipline of choice and a military atmosphere by desire. Anti- ROTC sentiments which forced the voluntary issue and wars envisioned to eventually spell the end of the program, may in fact have aided it. Although many capable individuals participated in mandatory ROTC, it should be remembered that only the first two years were a requirement. Since the first two years of ROTC are of the student's own volition, a student has the opportunity of trial without commitment. Students with a high enough GPA are encouraged to apply for. a scholarship which pays most tuition, books and lab fees. Qualified cadets are given a choice of an Active Army career or as a active soldier in the Reserve or National Guard. ROTC has remained a part of the academic establish¬ment which offers a unique type of platform that can be applied in both the civilian and military sectors. The main emphasis is placed on leadership training which is allowed to bepracticed as early as the junior year. Learned managerial skills have given many ROTC graduates a distinctive edge over non-ROTC graduates. Having been trained in the art of leadership, they have acquired the ability to cope with stress and function under pressure.
These qualities are desired attributes in any sector. Today's officers have proven themselves to be an asset in any segment of our society and the type of leader needed.
Our universities and colleges are the ultimate weapons. The role of our universities in national security and the military is of vital importance. There is no similar group in the world either in size or quality. They offer our nation a host of capabilities from research and development, engineering, through business and economics, law and medicine, to the social science. In addition to this tremendous contribu¬tion they are the providers of the Army officer corps. ROTC is alive and well on our campuses throughout our nation and from this richly diverse group of academic institutions the Army gets its officers. This is a healthy phenomenon because the majority of our officers are the product of these universities. They represent the rich diversity of the United States. It also gives university leaders an obligation to national security. They have a vested interest in the Army officer corps and must involve their students/cadets with the values they deem essential in an American university graduate. This plurality, this magnificent national diversity mixed with tough Cadet Command training gives our officer corps a unique, distinctly American strength, very necessary when these cadets take the oath to defend the world's greatest democracy. These are the Future Leaders of America. 6
CHAPTER 1 BEGINNING OF MILITARY TRAINING
Financial difficulties in the 1850's and early 1860's created serious doubts about the continued existence of the Delaware College Members of the Board of Trustees realized that there was possible salvation with the terms offered by the Morrill Act of 1862. This bill, signed by President Abraham Lincoln and passed into law on July 2, 1862, authorized the granting of 30,000 acres of public land for each congressional represen¬tative of the respective state. States without public land received land scrip or warrants for a similar amount of land. In March of 1867 Delaware College was desig¬nated as the state land grant college and the terms of the Morrill Act had simply been incorporated into the old charter. "The new charter, like the Morrill Act, declared that the leading object...shall be without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics." 1
Complying with the third requirement of the Morrill Act military training was introduced sometime in 1870 or 1871. The exact date is hidden in obscurity. Depending upon the reader's interpretation of the source, either date could be acceptable. Since no specific requirements for a military tactic instructor were stipulated, the selection process was apparently left to the discretion of the institution. The selection process, under the guidance of Colonel Purnell of the Civil War and college President, designated an individual to conduct military training. The just person was a Legion of Honor deco¬rated French veteran by the name of Professor Jules Macheret, who was also an instructor in French. His hot, yet humorous nature was curbed by the paramount signifi¬cance that he placed on military discipline. According to one source, Professor Macharet's easily flustered temperament could not cope with the ill disciplined students which he tried to mold into soldiers. A few of the cadets took their soldiering as serious as Professor Macharet and turned out to be good soldiers. All was not lost, however, it was reported that the various forms of physical exertion in handling heavy rifles and in march¬ing and maneuvering" 2 were of benefit to most. By 1872 it was apparent that Professor Macharet could not cope with the antics of the students who well exploited his weaknesses.
Accounts of that era reveal that cadets "were uniformed in cadet gray cloth, made at Dean's Mills" 3 a local manufacturer. The local citizenry would have referred the wearing of civilian clothing by the cadets as well as curtail their conduct. "The equipment was furnished by the Federal Government and consisted of "Quaker" guns and belts.
These so-called "Quaker" guns being muzzle loaders with the center section of the barrel cut out and replaced by a round piece of wood painted black. This was done to lighten the weight of the gun and also to prevent students loading the pieces." *
Upon Macheret's departure, the burden of training military tactics became the responsibility of Professor Edward Porter. Exactly how long he taught is not clear. Apparently teaching military tactics in addition to teaching agriculture and engineering created enough hardship forcing a temporary suspension of military tactics. When the training of military tactics commenced is uncertain. It was again taught, at least to some extent by 1882. That year 'the Review chided students' childish behavior for not wanting to wear a uniform. Although the faculty, did not make it a requirement, it did consider it a "courtesy." s The tone of the article erased all doubts about the faculty's position.
The uniforms are genteel looking, durable and so cheap as to be within the reach of every student. The uni¬form is to be made of the very best cadet gray, and consists of pants, sachcoat, vest and fatigue cap. The suit will make a most beautiful attire for any young gentleman. Several students - who are of that kind that never do anything unless compelled - say that they are not going to get uniforms, the matter is so trifling and babyish that it hardly merits attention, but we will ascertain the cause of their descension. Is the cost unreasonable? No, the cost of the entire outfit is but $20.75, as very ordinary suits would cost that. Will the uniform not become them? Yes, it will look far better than the clothes they ordinarily wear, and furthermore, they will wear nearly twice as long. What, then, can be the cause? There is none; it is only because they are a representative of those people we meet in every day life, who make themselves disagreeable on every topic, who are never any good to a community, and whose proper appellation would be "Dissenter." 6
The question of the type of uniform to be worn by the cadets was introduced to the college faculty during its scheduled meeting on March 20th, 1871. "It was agreed that it consist of light gray pants with olive green stripes of about an inch width with a deep orange narrow stripe down the center of the wide stripe, blue vest, and blue sach frock coat silver buttons all to be made according to one pattern, and by one tailor; dark blue cap pattern to be selected. In summer, white linen vest with medal buttons - subject to approval of the Board of Trustees." 7 At the following meeting on March 27, 1871 the previous proposal was adopted.
During the terra of Professors' Chester and Webb, "there appear to have been renewed activity during these two years, but the enthusiasm or possibly threatening war conditions existent in the world defense is noted. No one was designated for the military instructions from 1885 to 1888." Finding a quality faculty member to teach military tactics had reached a critical point by the end of 1888. Inadequate military training could eventually jeopardize the third prerequisite of the Morrill Act. "A way out of the problem of providing competent military instruction was understood to exist through the assignment of a Regular Army officer by the Federal Government, but the prerequisite was that the college have sixty students enrolled for instruction and Delaware College was a few men short of meeting this requirement." '
The very next year the college must have achieved the required number of students that had a yen for taking military training. Judging 'from the past difficulties that the college had reference students' aversion for the military, some form of encouragement or even mild coercion may have been used to achieve the desired results. Maybe the negativism of the 1882 article presented enough of a challenge for certain students to prove the faculty wrong.
For the first time, "Military Tactics" appears in the Delaware College Catalog of 1889 as a part of the regularly taught curriculum. A detailed course description was noted in Section 9 and reads as follows:
By the Act of Congress, July 2, 1862, establishing colleges for the benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, Military Science and Tactics become a part of the work of instruction. In Delaware College the military instruction and drill are in charge of an officer of the Regular Army. The course of instruction includes lectures on military science, battles and campaigns of ancient and modern wars, as well as thorough instruction in drill.
The uniform adopted is a cadet gray, strong, neat and serviceable, costing from $13.50 to $15.50 per suit. Arms, equipment, etc., are furnished by the national- government at no expense to the student. 10
Also for the first time, the title and position of the military officer assigned to the institution appears as a member of the college faculty. Although military tactics was already tough, as early as 1870 in compliance with the Morrill Act; it was not until 1889 that it was officially recognized as a separate department. By this time the student body had reached 52 students. Since military science was a requirement, all "were organized in a single company. Six hours a week were devoted to drilling and three hours to class room lectures and recitation."11 The first military inspection of the Delaware Cadet Unit was conducted by Lieutenant William P. Duvale on February 23, 1889 to- determine the condition of the military on campus. That year, First Lieutenant George LeRoy Brown, llth U.S. Infantry became the first Professor of Military Science and Commandant of Cadets. Coming from a disciplined lifestyle and stepping into one of laize fair about the military must have been trying to say the least. Considering the prevailing attitude, by now Captain Brown managed to keep the program alive until the completion of his tour of duty in 1891. It was about this time that the equipment was improved and increased. Two 3 inch muzzle loading cannons and the model 1884 calibre 45 rifles with belts and bayonets replaced the "Quaker" guns. The course covered Infantry and Artillery but, according to the inspector (Lieutenant Duvale) , did not cover castrametation. (No that is not a misprint, the diction¬ary explains that it is the art of laying out a camp.) The Cadet Corps apparently included some students from the Newark Academy which was a part of the Institution at that time. The youngest cadet was 14 years of age. Drilling was apparently a frequent duty for the inspector's report lists a total of 306 Infantry drills each day, one hour drill period each week and five classroom periods per week. 12
Within the time span of one year, enrollment had reached four seniors, six juniors, nineteen sophomores, fifty-two freshman and seventy-six sub-freshman. Captain Brown remained on active duty and sometime later completed another tour as PMS & T at the University of Arizona in Tucson. When George LeRoy Brown finally retired, he had reached the rank of Colonel. In 1891, Captain Brown was replaced by Lieutenant E.G. Brooks of the 8th U.S. Cavalry who served as PMS & T only one year.
That same year, March 22, it was "resolved that the duties of the Professor of Military Science and Tactics, shall be added that of Instructor in Engineering and that he shall receive a salary of $500 a year from the Morrill Fund dating from December 3, 1891."
The first PMS & T to hold the dual title of PMS & T and Instructor of Engineering was Lieutenant J.H. Frier of the 17th U.S. Infantry who was further assisted by eleven cadre members. His staff consisted of one Adjutant, two Captains, two First Lieutenants, two Second Lieutenants, one Sergeant Major, one color Sergeant and one First Sergeant for each of his two companies. During Lieutenant Frier's tenure, the Delaware College committee made recommendations on the issue of military drill attendance. On March 26, 1895 it became mandatory that all students under the grade of seniors were required to take military drill. Excused were only those with physical disabilities, conscientious objectors or those forbidden by parents. A new era of uniformity in officer training in a civilian environment had started. Established formats now guided colleges and universities with ROTC programs in the right direction.
In 1897, Lieutenant Walter H. Gordon of the 18th U.S. Infantry took over as the PMS & T. During his two year command only one noteworthy event appears to be mentioned. While the U.S. Gunboat "Wilmington" was on a visitation tour in Wilmington, Delaware; the Corps of Cadets acted as Escort of Honor to the Presentation Committee. Preparing future officers in the art of social graces, the cadets had a chance to strut their finery at the first formal Military Ball held on the third floor of Recitation Hall in 1898. It was to be a quarter of a century before a second ball would be held.
From the fall of 1899 until the spring of the closing century Lieutenant Charles H. Cabaniss Jr. a retired Army Officer served as PMS & T. In this year the Lieutenant Clarke Churchman Memorial Fund was started, and a very elaborate course of instruction was specified. The cadet officers and non-commissioned officers were utilized for all instruction. The three highest rated cadets were reported to the Adjutant General of the Army. Lieutenant Cabaniss Jr. was fol¬lowed by another retired Army officer by the name of Captain E.S. Avis who stayed until the end of 1902. Adhering to Federal guidelines, organized military drills would certainly have been standard practice by this time.
The following two years the cadets came under the leadership of Captain Treadwell A. Moore of the 21st U.S. Infantry. During Captain Moore's command, "the Roberts Medal was first awarded in 1903 and was in continuous service until 1922. (The present whereabouts of this medal is now unknown). It was worn by the student who was the 1st Sergeant of the winning company the preceding year. A new khaki uniform was added, to the requirements , for wear during the hot weather." 14
Federal Government requirements demanded five hours per week in military instructions. On March 17, 1903, complying with the demands, the faculty was directed to do likewise and "that the classes be so divided as to comply with this requirement." 15 Prior to Captain Moore's departure sometime in the summer of 1905, the Delaware College passed a requirement that all students, regardless of class had to take Military Drill and Tactics.
It is highly unlikely that the cadets only performed drills for their own gratification and not to an outside viewing public. Pride in being a cadet, many hours of practice, drawn together by an esprit de corps would certainly not have been enough to satisfy their ego for long. One way of showing off, without offending anyone, was through an exhibition drill.' The first written account of such an event is dated June 18, 1902; also the last official act commanded by Captain E. S. Avis before the expiration of his tour of duty. Commencing at 1530 hours, a full schedule of events was presented to the Board of Trustees of the college by the Cadet Corps. A compliment of 87 cadets participated in the day's activities. Using the cadet rank structure as a source of interpretation, approximately 64 of the cadets were underclassmen. Minor Infantry Tactics of attacking and capturing of a Position started the afternoon events followed by Defense of a Position. The later demonstrated the use of artillery in conjunction with the infantry. Then, like today, the Army cared for its soldiers and wanted to keep them alive if at all possible. One possible way to help in this process was that at least the officers knew First Aid. To show how well the future officers could care for their comrades numerous first aid skills were demonstrated. Of course no Drill exhibition would be complete without a Dress parade.
During the term of Captain Edward W. McCaskey of the 21st U.S. Infantry from 1905 to 1907, the program struggled through a difficult period when the ranks of the companies failed to find the manpower to fill them.
"There was a rumor that due to the lack of students taking military training at that time -it was necessary to resort to subterfuge to have sufficient men at inspection to re¬tain the Federal support. At the inspection one company was dismissed while the other one drilled, then a few members of the first company marched in as a hospital unit with stretchers (Litters) saving the day. There was a change in policy in 1906 which seems to confirm this rumor. There were only two skeleton compa¬nies in 1905, but in 1906 everyone who was physically fit was required to take the course and four full companies formed the battalion." 16
CHAPTER 2 BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA
The first twenty years of the Military Department were concluded with an Annual Inspection of the Cadet Corps by an officer of the General Staff of the United States Army on April 28, 1908 and a Military Drill on June 16, 1909. This drill was somewhat different than proceeding ones. First Aid had been deleted to allow more time for other functions. The cadets served as escort to the Governor of Delaware and were watched by him and V.I.P's as they passed in review. Of the approximately 160 cadets, about forty-five were freshmen. Beginning the new era was Lieutenant Edgar S. Stayer of the 23rd U.S. Infantry, appointed in August, 1907. Whether the new PMS & T should get all or most of the credit is difficult to state, so many years after the fact. The first change was made in the cadet appearance, which may have been the proper seed planted to produce future success. "He changed the cap from blue to gray, stopped the requirement of khaki but did require gray shirts. In 1909 he formed the first band, which had seventeen pieces. The U.S. Springfield Model 1898 (Krag) Cal. 30 rifle is believed to have replaced the old calibre 45 rifle in 1908." 1 There was also a noticeable increase in Cadet Corps exposure and activities starting about 1910. Lieutenant "Stayer developed plans to enhance the shooting caliber of the College Rifle Team by attempting to obtain a rifle range within close proximity of the school. During the interim it was decided to continue using the New Castle Range. The previous year, Delaware College placed a distant fifth in the Intercollegiate Rifle Matches. As early as March 1910, the Rifle team showed a marked improvement by defeating the University of Pennsylvania.
Since the Cadet Corps showed definite signs of progress, it is only appropriate to reflect back on the former Professor of Military Science and Tactics that brought the program through some trying times. By 1910, George LeRoy Brown was a Colonel, retired and President of the Peacock Military College at San Antonio, Texas. Both Captain E..S. Avis and Lieutenant E.G. Brooks had died. Captain Moore and Lieutenants Frier and Gordon had been promoted to the rank of Major. Captain McCaskey was an Instructor of Military Science at St. Joseph's College, Philadelphia, Pa; and Lieutenant Cataniss had been detailed with the National Guard of North Carolina. The inspection on April 27th conducted by Captain P.D. Lockridge was hailed as a tremendous success in every way. In the short three years that Lieutenant Stayer had served so far as PMS & T, he had brought the Military Department to the top rung of the ladder.
A unanimous request by the college faculty and students allowing the Lieutenant an extension was granted for an additional year. Unfortunately for members of the Cadet Corps, the deaths of Professor Freudenberger on May 25 and Professor Ennis on May 28 cloaked the joy of previous weeks in sadness. Since both professors were well liked and respected, a contingency of cadets attended both funerals and rendered military honors.
Of the school year just completed seemed busy, the following promised even more. Lieutenant Stayer held the first battalion inspection on December 22. Other than a few individuals who had failed to clean their guns and had poorly maintained their equipment; the battalion's rating was good. Inclement weather conditions forced all drills and related activities to be conducted in the gymnasium. Again, the strenuousness of some of these performances benefited most of the cadets physically. In one of his lectures, Lt. Stayer praised the voluntary military service of our Nation and explained the compulsory military service of other countries. Some interesting points about U. S. Military training, eventual readiness and its officers were brought to light that are worth quoting.
You may say that the _Americans are very patriotic and would volunteer in great numbers as soon as their country was in need. That man be true but a soldier is not made in a day. It takes from six months to a year to make a good infantry man, from one to two years to make a good cavalry man, from a year and a half to three to make a good artillery man. What would our little Army be doing against a much larger and as well equipped Army, while we were making soldiers out of raw recruits? They could only make short stands and then retreat to another position. Numbers would obliterate the valor of the men, even though they were fighting for their homes. You can readily see that there is dire need of some way of having a large body of trained soldiers; The liberty-loving Americans- are averse to the compulsory military service of the other countries, so we must invent a new and untried method of our own. The best method seems to be the one which was set forth by Mr. Taft in his letter to Congress; namely a skeleton Army. This would be to have the officers and non-commissioned officers who had been in the Army but had left, after having become proficient soldiers, and had gone into other walks of life. In case of war we could call on these men and in a few weeks they could have the raw recruits in shape to face the enemy. The military colleges, such as Delaware, Pennsylvania State, and others, are a part of this system. In the four years of drill that a man has in college, he gets enough military knowledge to enable him to become a proficient officer. That was one of the aims of the men who established these colleges. 2
On May 1, 1911 the Military Department's annual inspection was held and conducted by Captain B.T. Simons of the War Department. Included in the inspection were extensive drill requirements performed by the cadets. Crowds watching some of these performances were impressed with the cadets' well disciplined execution of the drills and expressed their appreciation with much applause. Captain Stayer's approbation was expressed by canceling all further military exercises for the first week of May. Chairman H.A. DuPont of the U.S. Senate, the invited dignitary for that day, was too involved in other matters to attend and had sent his regrets on April 27. The remaining two months of the school year were spent by the cadets fine-tuning their skills for the competitive drills and commencement day etalage. At the conclusion of the June 21 drill, new officers were selected for the following year. What should have been one of the greatest moments in the cadets7 life was lamented by many because of the impending departure of Captain Stayer.
In March of 1911, First Lieutenant Francis B. Eastman sent a request for acceptance as the new PMS & T to the president of Delaware State College. His acceptance was approved and in August of that year took command of the Corps of Cadets. Lieutenant Eastman inherited "four companies, one signal-detachment, and a twenty-piece band." 3 Two months after the assumption of his past, First Lieutenant Eastman was faced with the confusing task of teaching his men the-new infantry drill regulations that were instituted on October 26. Officers and men alike remained in the quandary for some time. Two additional changes occurred requiring only equipment and attitude changes. The original plain gold eagle cap insignia was replaced by a gold, filled with blue enamel college seal. From now on the First Sergeants carried a non-commissioned officer sword replacing the cumbersome rifle. Lieutenant Eastman continued the effort to secure a site for a rifle range.
Favorable weather during the month of November provided ample opportunity to become familiar with the new infantry drills. Considerable improvement was displayed during the first full dress exercise of the school year. Classes were suspended for the Cadet Corps for part of the following day. "The entire cadet corps marched to the Pennsylvania depot to give the football team a "send-off" for the Gettysburg game. This march, almost three miles, was very good practice for the battalion in marching together." 4 A 20 man band, which was the largest in the college up to that time, added beginning the New Year saw an increase in drill activities in preparation for the annual War Department Inspection in May. Although .the weather gave a helping hand by forcing the cadets indoors only once, the new regulations still caused some concern. A new uniform, with a price tag of about $7.50 including cap, was envisioned as a blessing for the coming warm days.
A letter sent by the college president in March of 1912 explained various features of the required to wear their uniforms only while participating in the two weekly, one hour drills and during the recitation upon military subjects. Although the reality of a close-by rifle range had still not come to fruition practice continued on a regular basis. By March, Delaware College was in seventh place. To lend inspiration to the military drills, there was a unanimous desire to have the band perform more frequently other than just once a year.
In hopes to instill endurance in the cadets and at the same time continued preparation for the annual inspection; the battalion held two days of field exercises. Wearing their brand new khaki uniform, the cadets departed the college at 0830 hours on April 24 and marched to Iron Hill, their destination four miles away. At about 1600 hours they marched back and repeated the same process the following day. Apparently the hard work same process the following day. Apparently the hard work during the field exercises the previous month paid off. Captain Raymond of the General Staff conducted the annual inspection on March 1 and rated the Delaware cadets as the best of the colleges that he had inspected thus far. Starting on that positive note, the cadets continued drilling in preparation for the competition drill for the Roberts7 Medal Commencement Day, June 19, 1912. On September 13 each Cadet Captain chose the members for his company from approximately fifty freshmen. A month later, on October 9th, the cadet battalion participated in Old Home Week held in Wilmington.
The year closed with Lieutenant Eastman's success of having procured a badly needed Delaware College flag; "a little over five feet square, made of heavy blue silk with old gold fringe, and had in the middle the Delaware College seal, also of old gold." 5 Another pleasant change was the elimination of the old "D.C's on the collars of the gray uniforms." 6 which were replaced by ornaments bearing the state seal. "These ornaments were an improvement both in looks and in meaning, as the D.C's had no significance at all." '
Aside from the routine military requirements, a few items of interest should be noted for 1913. On January 14 the battalion took part in the parade at the 16, 17 and 18, the cadets were busy displaying their skills. On the first two days, Farmers Day at the college form and commencement, the cadets performed various drills and completed each day with a dress parade. The third day, June 18th, the Cadet Battalion served as Escort of Honor to Dr. Frazier's dedication of Joe Frazier field. A then recently passed law restricted the tour of duty for the PMS & T to only three years instead of the customary four. This is still in effect today. In essence, the school year 1913 also closed with the departure of Lieutenant Eastman.
From September 1913 to September 1916, First Lieutenant Charles C. Herman of the 3rd U.S. Infantry commanded the Cadet Battalion. Exercising his authority, "he added the khaki uniform again to the requirements. In 1914 a student was required to furnish, at his own expense, one cadet gray uniform, one dark blue overcoat with a cape, and one khaki uniform, one pair canvas puttees, one pair of dark shoes, and one pair of tan shoes." Through Lt. Herman's leadership the Delaware College Cadets maintained their high standards and esprit de corps.
CHAPTER 3 THE START OF ROTC
In September of 1916 Lieutenant William F. Hoey of the 12th U.S. Infantry succeeded the newly promoted Captain Herman. Lieutenant Hoey must have welcomed the assignment since he was a Delawarean from the Dover area. He was also to be the first PMS & T under today's system. The following month news of a new military program was publicized in the October 31, 1916 issue of The Delaware College Review. This new program is our present day ROTC. It serves a much better purpose to quote the article directly since it enumerated all of the points.
By act of Congress the following changes in the Military Department of Land Grand Colleges were proposed and made possible. First, to install a regular four year course in military tactics. The first two years one to be prescribed as heretofore. For Juniors and Seniors, however, there are to be five hours a week with the work elective. But when a course is once elected it shall be prerequisite to graduation in any department. Second, all officers of the Battalion, commissioned and non- commissioned shall be from the upper two classes. Third, anyone electing subjects shall be required to attend at least two government summer training camps. The expenses of the men to be borne entire¬ly by the government. Fourth, there will be one or two enlisted men to aid the work which has heretofore been done by Sergeant Frazier. Fifth, any man graduating from such a course shall be eligible to the position of Second Lieutenant in the United States Army with a salary of one hundred a month. If he accepts this position he is to spend six months in special training in the Army. Sixth, all suits and uniforms of any kind are to be furnished at the expense of the government to all four classes. Seventh, Juniors and Seniors will be paid seven dollars a month. 1
All physically fit students above the age of 14 were required to take a minimum of three hours of military work per week. To be eligible for the advanced course, which was elective, had to have completed the basic course, and be recommended to the War Department by the College President and the PMS & T* Attendance at the two summer camps of four weeks duration each referred to previously, had to be agreed to by the student in writing.
A "specifically designated" infantry unit established in early 1917 and the advanced course were to start in "the beginning of the 1917-1918 collegiate year." 2 This very comprehensive course was designed to train men to act as commanders of platoons of infantry, with sufficient knowledge of company and battalion drill to give them an appreciation of the necessity for team¬work and an understanding of what it involves. However, WWI curtailed many of the plans. Many felt that should a general disarmament be agreed upon, too many officers would be produced and the system" abandoned. The system was designed to place college military training where it would be most productive for the military. Realizing the obvious benefits derived from such a program, the finance committee of Delaware College approved the new ROTC program.
One of the important events of the year for the battalion was its participation in the Inaugural Parade in Dover on January 16, 1917 held for the newly elected Governor. December 19, 1917 marked the day of the ROTC cadets7 first public appearance. The battalion participated in the "send off" given the drafted men. Marching down Market Street in Wilmington, dressed in their brand new uniforms, the cadets made quite an impressive picture. About thirty-five couples attended the Officers' Ball held on December 21. Its purpose was to stimulate greater interest in ROTC. Although present day attendance at the Military Ball is by invitation only with easily one hundred couples present, it is still considered one of the most prestigious events on campus. On March 5, 1918 previously introduced motion on military training was resolved and adopted. "Military training henceforth was to be obligatory on all students, under such regulations as may be approved by the faculty." 3 Section 47 of the National Defense Act, approved June 3, 1916 empowered the Secretary of War to issue all of the material and equipment needed to operate the ROTC unit. Established institutions receiving property of the U.S. Government were 'required to obtain a bond covering the value of the issued property. Barring reasonable wear and tear, each institution was responsible for the up-keep of the government property. On March 25, 1918 the Delaware College purchased a $5,670.88 bond from the Maryland Casualty Company at a premium of $22.68 per annum. Approval of the bond was granted by the Secretary of War on April 18, 1918. As mentioned previously, the war forced considerable curtailment upon the ROTC program and subsequent activities, forcing a six months temporary suspension of the ROTC program. "The model 1898 Springfield (Krag-Jorgenson), which had been issued and used since 1908, were returned to the government for use in training the Army then being drafted. Replacing them was the Mosin Nagant, a very poorly made Russian rifle. Fortunately it was used for drill purposes only." *
On July l, 1918, the entire college plant was placed at the disposal of the War Department to be used in the training of mechanics for the national Army, and throughout the summer classes had been busily working in the ships, taking courses in gas engines, electricity, radio, machine shop work, and bench wood work. Meantime Congress passed the bill creating the Students' Army Training Corps, and organization designed to prevent the description of the college threatened by the lowering of the draft age to 18, and to guarantee to the Army an adequate supply of officer material until the end of the war. In the fall the organization of the Delaware College Unit was begun. Many delays, chief amongst which was the epidemic of influence, operated to prevent the smooth working of the new regime, but finally, on October 12 to 14, 215 students were regularly inducted into the United States Army for the unit. Sixteen other students, not of age for enlistment, were also enrolled in the college unit. Academic instruction was carried on by the regular faculty.' The colleges as a military post war under the comment of Captain Victor N. Camp, U.S.A., assisted by six infantry officers, a quartermaster, and a medical officer. The unit was demobilized December 13. It was ranked by District Headquarters as one of the five most efficient units of the fifty-five in the Third District. 5
Beginning with the new ROTC program until February 1919, its temporary closure, Colonel Edwin P. Pendleton, U.S. Army, Retired served as Commandant of Cadets. His efficiency and ability to get the job done were instru¬mental in the success of the fletching ROTC program. By June of 1918, 184 men (graduates and undergraduates) from the University of Delaware were on active duty in our Armed Forces. Well over one third were in the Infantry and 52 in the various other branches of the Army. The remaining 26 chose the Navy or Marine Corps. We must keep in mind that all of them had some prior military training, since it was mandatory in the first two years of college. Unfortunately college accords do not list ROTC graduates separately. Just a short year later the number had reached 302. Most of them chose other branches within the Army over Infantry.
"The ranks they attained in the Army indicated the dependency placed upon them and if every school developed an equivalent proportion of its students, the country would not have lacked trained officers.
There were: 2 Colonels 1 Lieutenant Colonel II Majors 24 Captains 50 First Lieutenants 54 Second Lieutenants" 6
One of those young Second Lieutenant's heroic exploits would elevate him to national fame as "Iron Mike." "John W. 0'Daniel, Second Lieutenant, llth Infantry, 5th Division, American Expeditionary Force. For extraordinary heroism in action with the enemy near Bois St. Claude, in the St. Michael Salient, France, September 12, 1918. After being severely wounded in the head early in the action, Lieutenant 0'Daniel continued in command of his platoon, leading his men for several hours until forced to give in to complete physical exhaustion, showing thus the most exceptional courage, determination and devotion to duty." 7
By end December, the college was back in civilian hands. "The military side of the college had returned to its previous status along with the other work, and Major Ward E. Duvall, C.A. , had been assigned to the college as commandant. Under his direction the ROTC became a real live part of the college organization." a It was the beginning of a great future. In evidence of the high esteem held for Colonel Pendleton, he was presented with a pair of gold cuff links as a parting gift. March the first of 1919 brought some unexpected visitors to Delaware College campus and particularly joyful for the students of the Woman's College. Soldiers of the 11th U.S. Calvary performed a spectacular show of horsemanship, completely capturing the town of Newark without firing a shot in earnest. The first week of April brought Colonel J.B. Douglas of the Air Service on campus to conduct the annual inspection of the battalion. At the completion of the inspection, the Colonel rated the battalion as very satisfactory. Sometime around the same time frame Major Duvall reestablished the Signal Corps. "The purpose of the organization was to form an efficient service for the transmission of messages from the college to the field headquarters, and to each individual company." 9 Two portable field sets on loan from one of the faculty members made message sending much easier. The job was further complemented by expert buzzer and wig wag service.
A Victory Loan Campaign "under the auspices of the ROTC" 1D unit was launched. Through the promise of competition it was hoped to install maximum participa¬tion. The obvious advantage was on the side of the underclassmen because of their larger number of students. By the end of the Victory Loan Drive on May 11, 1919, Delaware College had dropped from fifth place half-way through to eleventh.
The rigorous demands, both physical and mental, placed upon the cadets during the yearly summer camp separated the wheat from the chaff which still remains an intricate part of the program. Those that cannot meet the rigid Army standard of its officer corps are not deserving of the gold bar. An officer must lead by example. That year the ROTC summer camp was held at Camp Lee, Virginia with Major Duvall assigned as the camp Supply Officer. Adding additional burden to the potential officers, they were required to adhere to a strict code of conduct. A list of the do's and don'ts and musn'ts was published in the 1919, June issue of the Delaware College Review.
1. Men must report to camp before dark, June 21. 2. Uniforms will not be worn unless it belongs to the student. 3. Students will bring only hand baggage 4. Men who do not show satisfactory scars will be vaccinated at the camp. 5. Men who do not show satisfactory inoculation will be inoculated at the camp. 6. A thorough physical examination will be made of all men reporting to camp. Those who are found unfit physically will be discharged. 7. Discipline, precise, rigid and exacting, will be the keynote of the camp. The salute, bearing and address of instructors and students will be required to meet the highest standard of correctness at all times. Men will be required to comply with all orders or instructions issued by proper authorities. Any inattention or neglect may be punished by the withholding of privileges. In aggravated cases students will be discharged by the Camp Commander. Decisions of the Camp Commander will be final. 8. Any student who is guilty of misconduct or who is indifferent to training will be discharged. Discharged men will not be entitled to mileage either to or from the camp. 9. Any student who is compelled to leave through no fault of his own may be relieved by the Camp Commander." 10. A certificate of proficiency will be furnished each student at the completion of his camp course. 11. Weekend leaves will not be granted under other than exceptional circumstances. 12. Students must bring with them sufficient underwear, toilet articles and money to meet their personal requirements. Strict attention will be paid to personal cleanliness and hygiene. Today's cadets also must adhere to strict protocol, but unlike their predecessors, they are better prepared. Three hours of weekly physical training are mandatory for all upper classmen. Prior to reporting for six weeks of Advanced Camp, the junior cadets attend a three day mini camp (Junior Weekend), where they undergo the same type of training that will be required of them at Advanced Camp.
During school year 1919 to 1920, Infantry Captain Carlton Coulter Jr. was in charge of the Department of Military Science and Tactics. During his term on PMS & T, "the Russian rifles were returned and the U.S rifle calibre 30, model 1903 was issued to the school." ll Captain Coulter was followed by another Infantry Officer, Major Lathe Burton Row who reorganized the unit in 1921. "Under the National Defense Act of 1920, it was compulsory for all physically fit students to attend three hours per week. Juniors and Seniors could elect to take five hours per week and would be paid thirty cents commuted ration. They were required to attend one six week camp." 12 "On the twenty-second of November, 1921 the Delaware College received a Certificate of Appreciation from the Secretary of War for services rendered with the Student Army Training Corps. The 1922 ROTC graduating class of 22 newly commissioned officers was the first of the new four year program. In order to promote academic efficiency the Colonel E.J. Smith first time for that Company in many years." 15 It was noted in the May 23 issue of the "Review" that the year also marked "the Fiftieth Anniversary of Military Instruction at Delaware." 16 Where that erroneous date of origin for Military Science was obtained is unfortunately not stated. However, available records pre-date this by two years.
A government telegram from the War Department; dated June 8, 1923 congratulated the University of Delaware ROTC for having been "designated as a distinguished college." 17 Major Row's success in placing the distinction on "the list of distinguished colleges in Military Sciences" 1B was followed by being able to manage "to get all upper-classmen tailor made uniforms" 19 with Sam Brown belt and leather puttees. The following month, on October 30, the entire Senior ROTC class was invited guests at Aberdeen Proving Grounds when they witnessed the firing of some of the newest big guns of the Army. Cadets were further thrilled with witnessing the awesome explosive power of two 600 pound bombs dropped by an airplane and "the destruction of two balloons by Aircraft Machine Gun fire in the air."20 Completing an eventful year, with a final drill, further drills were suspended until March of the following year due to unfavorable weather conditions. Company C, the past winner of the Roberts Medal relinquished the medal to Company A, the new winner.
Chapter 4 ROTC BECOMES A COAST ARTILLERY UNIT
February 22, 1924 saw only the second Military Ball since the official inception of the Military Science Department. About seventy five couples were in attendance at the Old College which was decked out "in a very belligerent military manner with red, white, and blue bunting lending color to the otherwise austere appearance of Army rifles with fixed bayonets." 1 The cadets looked their best wearing their "Sam Brown belts and highly polished leather puttees and boots." 2 In March of that year plans were proposed to change the ROTC program from an infantry branch to the Coast Artillery service. Several reasons were disclosed to validate the proposed change. It was "pointed out that the graduates receiving commissions for their ROTC training in the infantry branch of the service had to go out of their state for military association and service, because the state of Delaware is in a Coast Artillery area." 3 A change to Coast Artillery demanded also a change in the type of training. Changing all cadets to Coast Artillery immediately would have been counterproductive; therefore, 1926 ushered in a very busy schedule for the Rifle Team. "The Military Department succeeded in scheduling over a hundred matches" " commencing with the first one on February 7, 1926 and completing a successful season. For the first time, anti-ROTC feelings were expressed by the American citizenry. Fortunately for the program this was restricted to a small group. From a report filed by the committee of ROTC colleges in Atlanta, Georgia in February 1926, came the following retort reference the ROTC Training.
Recognizing the educational value of the ROTC training, we deplore the misunderstanding of the problem on the part of a small minority of people who ascribe to the advocates of military training motives that have no basis in fact. An overwhelming majority of college men of America who have intimate daily touch with the problem bear willing testimony to the fact that ROTC training makes an enormous contribution to the meaning of discipline, the power and reward of confidence, the value of self-control, the requisites of leadership, respect for authority, the need of morale, the case of mind and body, and the rewards of promptness and obedience. 9 The annual Inspection held that year on April 12th and 13th was reviewed by Major Robert M. Dunforth and T.J. Johnson. According to Major Underwood, the inspection was the best ever conducted and a "decided improvement over that held last year." 10 Once again, Delaware ROTC was on the list of distinguished colleges with Company B taking first place in the competition. Having done extremely well in the inspection, forty-eight senior cadets went to Plattsfaurg, New York. After successfully completing their summer camp, they joined the ranks of the Army Officer Corps.
Possibly in an effort to erase any anti-ROTC sentiments that may have been carried over from the previous year, the military, vis a vis the "Army and Navy Journal announced the contest of a 500 word essay. The topic was 'The Value of Military Training for American Youth."1 The winning college student was awarded with "a round-trip ticket from his home to Yellowstone National Park, with $25 toward expenses." " First place for an ROTC student was even more rewarding; he would receive a round-trip ticket to Europe "on a first class steamer, with $50 toward expenses." 12 With the closing days of the year, a promising year and busy schedule were forecasted for the Rifle Team in 1927. After having fired only three matches in the new year, the Federal employers padlocked the doors to the Rifle Range, threatening the end for the team. Reasons for the closure are not readily available. Fortunately for the team, the closure only lasted a few days. The indoor range was permanently closed in the late seventies due to OSHA violations of safety standards. An attempt to have the range re-opened in 1987 proved with negative results. The former range remains vacated due to lead contamination.
"An apparent poor impression made by the military students during the last inspection when many of the ROTC appeared in ranks with civilian clothes forced a new issue." 13 As of February that year it was mandatory "that uniforms must be worn on Mondays and Fridays at the hour designated for drill whether it looked like rain or whether it looked like a nice day to drill." 14 Continued changes to the Military Science Department seemed to be forthcoming. Upon recommendation of the Faculty, the Board of Trustees .at a regular meeting held on February 19, 1927, fixed the following requirements for Military work at Delaware College of the University of Delaware. The new plan became effective in September, 1927. It did in no way affect the amount of military work required of students up to the end of the present college year. 1. In the Freshman and Sophomore years, military training remained compulsory. 2. In the Junior and Senior years, all courses in military work (ROTC) were elective. 3. Students who elected Advanced Military (ROTC) received a total of eight credit hours toward graduation, provided that they completed the full two years of Advanced Military work. No credit was granted for this work unless both years were satisfactorily completed. Students who did not elect and" complete Advanced Military (ROTC) work were required to complete in the Junior or Senior year six hours of free elective academic work in addition to the work required for graduation. In the Arts and Science School the minimum requirements for graduation for those who did not elect Advanced Military (ROTC) were to be 126 credits hours , and for those who did not elect Advanced Military the minimum requirements for graduation were to be 128 credit hours -in addition to Military in the Freshman and Sophomore years . 15
Since the previous year's Annual Inspection failed to achieve a fourth consecutive rating of "distinguished College", preparation for the 1927 inspection, scheduled for May 6 and 7, began early. Efforts by Major Glassburn were under way in the Officer's Club to get its members organized to form a chapter of the Scabbard and Blade Military Honor Society. On December 19, 20, and 21 the local ROTC Officers Club hoped to earn enough money with the admission charge for the picture "Spotlight." The proceeds in turn were to be used to petition for the Society. A proposal to have a distinctive crest designed that would distinguish Delaware ROTC from that of others was introduced by him. In November 1927, with the arrival of big guns, Coast Artillery training could begin in earnest. By the end of the year the ROTC arsenal had one 75 millimeter anti-aircraft gun, two 155 millimeter hung accompanied by "a ten ton artillery tractor for hauling. Each of these guns with its carriage weighed 23,000 pounds with a range of 17,000 yards." 16 According to Major Glassburn it was highly probable that they had been used in World War I. The increase of Coast Artillery equipment also had its effect on the budget, rendering the existing $35,000.00 bond inadequate. In November of 1927, the University issued a $150,000.00 bond to the federal government along with a copy of the by-laws verifying its authenticity and the various offices of responsibility. The year concluded on a routine note.
January 1928 brought an unexpected surprise to the campus. It appears that Major Glassburn co- authored the movie "Dress Parade." Back in 1926 he had been requested by the Superintendent of West Point to write about the real life at the Point. That month Major Glassburn received national notability for his work. The next month the ROTC cadets sported a new emblem, a gold 'D' and a similar gold 'chick' in the foreground." l7 The mark of distinction was worn on the left sleeve, the proper point of the diamond being four inches above the cuff. Russia's military training during that time period was a bourgeois attempt by American standards. "In the colleges and universities of Russia, over -seventy-five thousand students were enrolled in compulsory military training as prescribed by the government. Approximately 180 hours per year was spent in such a manner by the unfortunates. "18
In April of that year the college once again issued its customary approval to suspend classes a day and a half prior to a government inspection. Members of the War Department inspected the Military Science Department on April 27, 1928. This was followed by the Annual Inspection on May 7 conducted by Major General Hansen Ely, commander of the Second Corps area. "During the inspection, the second platoon of Company A was judged the best platoon in the unit, while Company A had won the drill a week before." 19
Voices from the recent past protesting mandatory ROTC once again cracked the harmony of the Military Department. Several college presidents present at the Military Appropriations Committee expressed their concern about the disention. Unanimously, the accusatory finger was pointed to the uniform, the driving force behind the popularity of ROTC. The reduction of uniform commutation "created a great deal of discontent and criticism. In some places it even threatened the maintenance of units." 20 Adhering to the tradition of prior gubernatorial inaugurations, the ROTC unit "was again invited to participate in the November parade in Dover.
January of 1929 brought with it the possible promise of fruition of Major Glassburn's efforts to obtain new uniforms. Until the arrival of the uniforms, some cadets had to be content with ill fitting uniforms during the May inspection. What started out on a good note with the promise of the new uniform was blemished by Sophomore opposition to ROTC. Some Sophomores gave "as their reasons for refusing to consider Advanced Course, ROTC, that the course was hard; and that the return in the way of credits and money did not justify the effort required by it." 21 Major Glassburn's rebuttle published in the March 22, 1929 issue of the "Review" could well be interpreted by some as being curt. Since the full effect of Major Glassburn's retort could lose some of its meaning through re-interpretation, the full text is retained.
The first reason or, rather, excuse, can be dissed in a few words. The man who is looking for easy things to do isn't wanted by the ROTC. And, if he persists in that attitude, he'll soon find that no organization which requires real men will want him. Life will very soon shunt him contemptuously to one side as one lacking courage to do hard things. The tiling that is hard to accept in that there are men on the campus, otherwise desirable, who measure the opportunity to do some small service to their country by the pecuniary advantage that may be reaped there from. Had our ancestors been equally venal and spiritless there would be no University of Delaware today, or any other like institution open to the sons of the unprivileged. When America was created by the blood and self sacrifice of men who didn't count the cost of service to their country, the death-knell of privilege based upon hereditary aristocracy was sounded. After creation must follow maintenance. Our country can be maintained only by the willingness of its free citizens to render it the small amount of public service due to it from each one. If the spirit of public service should die in our colleges the death of America will soon follow. Are the men on this campus cast from a cheaper mold than ; were the men who contested the ground at Cooch's Bridge against a people who sought to rule them from across the ocean? I can't believe it. "
On Monday, May 6 the Annual Inspection was conducted by Colonels McCoy and Toffy and Major Wildrick. "'A' Company, holder of the gold star for the best-drilled company for 1928, relinquished this honor to 'B' Company for 1929. 'A' Company, nevertheless, maintained the best line during the parade." 23 The honors were displayed by a gold star on the company guidon and a gold star on the sleeves of those compromising the company" 24 The graduation parade marked also the last drill for the practice as performed in 1926 was not stopped due to public opposition but in fact a governmental ploy. It claimed that the War Department prefabricated the alleged public protest because "there was a good chance that the average high school or collegeboy, confronted with either(bayonet drill and instruction), would conceive a .hatred for war that would make him oppose it for life. Another effective means of the government to popularize military training was through 'sex appeal', in the form of girl officers and sponsors, and girls' rifle teams; horses, put at the disposal of students in the ROTC units for use especially as polo ponies; parades, medals, reviews, spectacular sham battles." 26 The article continued to discredit the military tactics of duping the public by hiding the true horrors of war.
Standing behind the ideals that he believed in, Major Glassburn stayed true to form with his customary and unique form of rebuttal. He questioned their intellect and rendered the accusations written by the Committee on Militarism in Education and staff as unadulterated prevarications. Major Glassburn totally refuted the claims of Army polo ponies and concluded by, once again, questioning the courage of those opposed to the military.
That school year's inspection was conducted by Colonel Tanner and 14 officers from the 261st Coast Artillery. The newly commissioned officers had their gold bars pinned on by Delaware's governor C. Douglass Buck. In the fall of '29, the cadets were placed into various platoons forming the companies for the following school year. In an attempt to possibly discourage any lingering dissent that may have germinated from the previous spring or thoughts about future involvement, the local military adopted a Demerit System. Military students were required to attend all drills; failure to do so was punishable with twenty demerits. An accumulation of more than fifty demerits meant dismissal from the program, regardless of class record, position, or rank. The imposition of punishment for the various infractions would be considered too severe by today's standards.
"Late at drill...................... 2 Absent from drill.................. 20 Inattention......................... 5 Dirty equipment..................... 5 Untidy uniform...................... 5 Not shaven at drill................. 2 Improper uniform.................... 2 Not saluting properly............... 5 Not wearing uniform................. 7 Failure to report a late or absentee.......................... 4 Wilfully failing to report a late or absentee.........................20" 27
Students committing "unusual or heinous" 28 offenses not specifically prescribed were tried by a Battalion Board composed of three cadre members a cadet major and cadet captain of the student's battery. He had to appeal to the Committee on Scholarship in Discipline. The newly issued uniforms to the Juniors in October did much to encourage them to stay with program. Inclement weather in November forced a postponement of the scheduled award ceremony for the past year's cadets' summer camp achievements at Fort Monroe, Virginia. On May 8, 1930 the 33 ROTC graduates were guests of honor at a banquet given jointly by the Army components— the National Guard, Reserve, and Active Duty Army. On the 20th of the same month they were again entertained by the Military Department at Augustine Beach. That year's competitive drill held on May 15 was won by "B" Company and the customary sabre was presented to winning cadet commander.
With the end of the school year approaching, the military department was kept busy with inspections the entire week prior to commissioning. On May twenty-seventh, the commissions were presented "by Major General John W. Gullick, Chief of the Coast Artillery Corps of the Regular Army. The new lieutenants had satisfactorily completed their four years7 work in military." 29
Twenty-one seniors of next year's graduating class were annually invited guests at Aberdeen "to observe a demonstration of the use of ; heavy artillery" 30 on October 7, 1930. Major Glassburn was pleasantly surprised with his promotion to Lieutenant Colonel in November. Although a PMS & T assignment was customarily a four year tour, University officials' request of a one year extension for the Colonel was approved.
The new decade also brought several new appearances to the cadet uniform. The first came in the form of a Detachment Crest, three years after it had been authorized. Under the provisions of paragraph 48, AR 600-40, Chapter No. 1, December 1, 1928, authorized ROTC units to wear distinctive badges.
The present badge, approved on May 16, 1931, is as follows. "BADGE: On a blue shield an open book radiant or, inscribed with the words: 'Grammar'/ 'Philol', 'Rhetor', 'Ethics', 'Metaph', 'Logica', 'Mathem', 'Physica', in black characters; on a blue scroll the motto, 'Scientia sol mentis est' in gold letters." 31
Since the origin and meaning of the badge are somewhat unique, it deserves mentioning. "The book, rays, and motto are taken from the university seal. It is understood that the seal has been used since the organization of the school in 1833. The seal was found in a print shop in Philadelphia in 1870 when the college reopened after being closed for eleven years. The motto is translated as "Learning is the sun of the mind." 32
"The uniform was changed in 1930 from the poorly fitting war shock uniform with wrapped leggings and blouse with the high collar to a roll collar olive drab uniform. It was made of melton cloth with the lapel of the coat faced with blue. The trousers were long and of the same material. The appearance of the unit was immensely improved. The cadet officers wore the regulation army officers uniform except for rank insignia. In 1932 a white uniform was adopted for evening wear while in camp." 33
The overall high point of the school year came on May 21st with the Annual Inspection preceded by the competitive drill competition. Inspecting the ROTC unit was Major Meade Wildrick of the Coast Artillery Corps (War Department). A week prior to the final inspection, "Battery 'A7 with a unanimous vote of the judges, was awarded first place in the annual inter-battery drill." 34 "At the regular drill period on Tuesday, May 19, the annual awards of decorations including sabres, medals, and stars were made by Lt. Col. Robert P. Glassburn." 35 Once again the Delaware ROTC unit achieved an outstanding evaluation. That year, 14 senior cadets had their shiny new gold bars presented to them by Major General Hanson E. Ely, Commanding General of the Second Corps Area. Four other cadets were awarded "certificates of eligibility for commissions which were bestowed upon them when they reached age 21." 36 About fifty cadets of the 1911 graduating class returned to their twentieth Military Tactics Class reunion, with Col. Edgar S. Stuyer, their commandant as the guest of honor.
"Delaware's ROTC unit, consisting of 23 cadets, again established itself creditably with the excellent showing it made during its six weeks of camp at Fort Monroe," 37 Virginia, June 12th to July 23rd. Not satisfied with carrying of honors in the use of fire arms, the Delaware boys captured most of the prizes in the various athletic events sponsored by the camp officials as well as holding some of the highest offices. The first inspection of the new school year for the ROTC cadets was held September 26, 1931. "The Freshmen were conspicuous in their strangeness, and the newly appointed Junior non-coms were equally conspicuous in their collegiate uniforms and their new feeling of authority." 38 The former Blue Chick was replaced with the newly approved crest of the university seal; worn on the coat lapels by privates and on the shoulder strap by cadet officers. February 1932 saw an increased interest in the Advanced Course. Forty sophomores expressed the desire to continue on with ROTC and half had already signed up. Since allowable quota was thirty students, the ROTC program had no problem filling its class. March the 26th marked the revival of the Military Ball which had been suspended for several years. Over one hundred couples were in attendance for this highly successful occasion. Competitive drills were conducted on May 19th and twelve days later the senior cadets were awarded their commission by Delaware Senator Hohn G. Townsend.
Having served five years as the PMS & T, Colonel Glassburn decided that his future career ambitions precluded staying any longer. It should be noted that during every year of his tenure, the Delaware ROTC unit received a rating of "distinguished." His successor, Major Donald M. Ashbridge of the Coast Artillery Corps, took over command in September of 1932. Within three short weeks after school had started, Major Ashbridge, assisted by his cadre, had the "students in the Military Department functioning with machine-like precision." 39 Starting the new school year were "three hundred and seventy-three men in the battalion of whom fifty-one were in the Advanced Course." 40 A new innovation started by Major Ashbridge was in the rating scheme of drills. "Instead of winners in the competitive contest being chosen for one day's work, records of each week's performance were kept and considered in making the award." 41 Opposition to mandatory military training once again was heard in November of 1932. Since previous opposition did not achieve the desired results, a new twist was added, the "Conscientious Objectors." Just how many Conscientious Objectors suddenly surfaced is not known. However, they must have shouted loud enough to have the issue resolved by the Board of Trustees on December 10. 1932. A resolution was passed and a new rule adapted permitting students to be excused from the required courses in Military Science and Tactics. Students who felt that they belonged in that category had to "present entirely convincing proof to the Faculty that they were honestly and sincerely "conscientious objectors to war and to any form of military training preparatory thereto; but that persons thus excused from the required military courses of the Freshmen and Sophomore years were required to substitute therefore somewhat more than an equivalent number of hours in Physical Education and such other subjects as were prescribed by the Faculty." 42
That December, the Supreme Court of the United States, in answer to a student's appeal (conscientious objector) from a decision by the Maryland Court of Appeals which had upheld compulsory military training, said that no federal question was involved, and therefore, upheld the validity of the state law requiring such training. The University of Delaware like the University of Mary¬land, is a land grant college and required a course in military train¬ing. But this is merely a college requirement. There is no federal requirement that military training be compulsory. The federal depart¬ment in charge of the disbursement of money at land grant colleges merely requires that a course in military instructions be offered. "
It is interesting to note that some sources in 1933 predicted our Nation's involvement in a major conflict by April 1943. They also projected the daily demand of Delaware graduates needed to support such a struggle. Based on previous wars, Delaware would have to "supply 1.84 men per day of war as compared to .0038 for the Mexican, .0029 for the Civil, .069 for the Spanish American, and .88 for the World War."44 They further warned us about the precocious types of individual that received undeserved publicity and called on all to perform their duty and show thyself a man!
Evaluation of the annual inspection and military competition held on May 11 was conducted by Majors Wildrick and McLean from the Second Corps Area» Commissioning of the designated seniors took place May the twenty-fifth and brought the school year to a close.
The new school year started with the ROTC cadets marching in the NRA parade in Wilmington on October 3, 1933. That same month, Major Ashbridge inaugurated an entirely new phase of instruction in the military courses. "The new phase was an elaborated and an enlargement of the Artillery Branch of instruction and centered about the big 155 mm guns. One of the big guns was permanently put in position on the Parade Ground and the necessary baselines. It was the first time that coordinated artillery drills were carried out by batter¬ies at this University."45 The following month Major Ashbridge replaced his gold leaves with silver leaves of a Lieutenant Colonel. Delaware cadets' performance during their annual inspection, conducted on May 3rd and 4th, was again outstanding according to the inspectors. "Delaware's unit was considered the most modern Collegiate Coast Artillery Reserve Officers' Training Corps in the country. An observation post containing valuable calibrated sighting instruments and telephones were connected with the central plotting room in old Mechanical Hall. Captain Charles M. Myers declared that no other college is as well equipped as Delaware for coast artillery drill." 46 Battery "A" won the first place honors in Competitive Drill. The various com¬manders received the coveted sabre during the graduation ceremonies.
On 11 May, the ROTC cadets were once again the center of attraction on campus during the University of Delaware's Centenary celebration. The military theme was "Delaware in Our Time", how our state was to be protected from "an ambitious enemy attempting to attack from the land and from the air." 47 Military graduation and com¬missioning on May 24th concluded not only an extremely busy month but also the school year. Twenty-one new Second Lieutenants filled the Army Officer Corps. Presenting the General J. Ernest Smith Prizes and new silk U.S. colors for the unit was General Smith himself. Illness having forced Lieutenant Colonel Ashbridge into retirement, he was replaced by Major Donald L. Dutton, C.A.C. in September, 1934. Because of the intervening spring vacation, the ROTC did not accept the invitation to participate in the Army Day Parade on April 6, 1935.
Inspectors Colonel McCourmon, U.S. Infantry and Major Homer, C.A.C. conducted the annual inspection of the Military Science Department at the end of April 1935. As anticipated, the Cadet Corps received its ninth consecutive award of excellence.
Awarding the commissions to twenty-five seniors was General William E. Cole, of the Second Coast Artillery District. Among the awards that year were the Lt. Clarke Churchman Memorial Prize and the General J. Ernest Smith Prizes. Two other students who received certificates had to wait until they were twenty-one for their appointment. The annual, inspection on April 30,1936 marked one decade of "excellent" ratings. Battery "C" was the drill competition winner with the commander receiving his sabre during the commissioning exercises on May 23,1936.
Starting the new school year appears to have had its share of difficulty for a "Lillipution Freshmen" 48 for whom none of the uniform pants seemed to have been small enough. It would have been enjoyable to find the end result of the situation. Over 50 couples were in atten¬dance at the Military Ball held at the Archmere Academy in Claymont on December 4, 1936: With the well publicized fact that the U.S. Supreme Court ruled Military Training compulsory, certain factions still voiced their opposition.
The Annual Inspection held on April 24, 1937 was conducted by Lieutenant Colonels Loomis and Jones representing the Second Corps Area. Included in the inspection were the customary competitive drills, won that year, by "B" Battery. After the presentation of awards, twenty-seven cadets were commissioned Second Lieutenant with two others waiting to turn twenty-one. Also ending with the school year was Major Button's term as PMS & T. In the Fall of 1937, Major Reama W. Argo, C.A.C. took over as head of the Military Science Department.
An exciting day and night on October 24, 1938 were had by Newark residents observing the crack New York, 62nd Artillery Regiment; demonstrating their artillery skills. Commissioning exercises were held on May 21. Major Argo's first school year closed without any extra¬ordinary events. Beginning with the fall semester in 1939, all ROTC cadets had to learn new drills. As a result of numerous experiments and tests, it was felt that the new drill would better meet any new adversary's challenge.
Although Sophomores and Seniors had to learn new drill regulations, their texts "were not changed. This was due primarily to the expense of both the original and new books. Moreover, the Military Department thought it best for the classes of '40 and '42 to continue their original texts as a change might impair the scholastic results. A desperate need by the federal government to enlarge its armed forces, all engineering students, re¬gardless of GPA, were encouraged to enroll in Advanced ROTC.
January's Military Ball at the Newark Country Club was reported to have been one of the best in many years. About fifty couples were in attendance. The teaching faculty of the Military Science sported their new dress blue uniform fashioned after the old cavalry uniform with dark blue blouse and light blue trousers. According to a former ROTC band drum major and captain during that time, the Army NCO dress blue uniform also replaced their olive drab in 1939. The new appearance of the band, with their solid blue uniform and gold piping and chevrons, conviently coinciding with the school colors may explain the sudden demand for their performance in non-ROTC related functions. A look at the 1940/1941 "Blue Hen" year book reveals a rather active band schedule. The band, who just a few months earlier limited itself to the military environment, resurfaced as a true marching band. Performances ranged from special formations at football games to participation in community band concerts.
Contrary to the attitude that prevailed just a few short years ago, the pendulum in favor of ROTC was again beginning to swing to the right. A student opinion survey conducted in January of 1940 showed a large number of students in favor of ROTC. "The largest number of dissenters— one fifth in each case, was found in the East Central and West Central states. Only 4 percent more women than men were opposed to ROTC."49 Students of schools with voluntary programs seem to have shown the strongest backing, with nearly half of the Nation's students also favoring a voluntary program. A speech by Major Argo in February 1940 brought out several signifi¬cant points on our National Defense. "He stated that the greatest single weakness of the military policy existing until the World War was short term enlistments. This weakness was corrected by the National Defense Act of 1916 and of 1920, which at the same time provided for a means of training reserve officers and the maintenance of a standing Army capable of meeting a national emer¬gency." 50
The annual Corps Area inspection was held on April 26, 1940. "Lieutenant General Hugh A. Dunn, Commander of the First Army of the United States and Commanding Officer of the First Corps Area personally inspected the University of Delaware ROTC that afternoon." 51 To this date, he is the highest ranking officer to have visited the campus. It was the first of several military drills, inspections, and ceremonies that culminated with military graduation on Saturday, May 18. Competitive drills were held on April 30 and won by Battery C. Ten juniors and those seniors who had not received their commission attended six weeks of summer camp at Fort Hancock, N.J. The advanced classes in Military Science in the fall of 1940 had the largest enrollment at that time with approximately 35 seniors and 40 juniors. Elaborate plans, of a combined ROTC and Physical Education Building were proposed in November. Present Mechanical Hall was to be torn down and replaced by a complex housing a com¬bination drill hall, military store rooms, classrooms, and offices. Unfortunately, the project never went beyond the planning stages. Even Colonel Ashbridge's attempts to further the project proved unsuccessful.
In December of 1940, "Lieutenant Colonel Donald M. Ashbridge, former commandant of the ROTC at the Univer¬sity of Delaware who was retired from the Army while serving in that position in 1934, was ordered back to duty at the same post." 52 After retirement, the Colonel was a faculty member until his recall to active duty.
January 11, 1941 marked the date of the first Military Dinner Dance, which "proved to be an astounding success." 53 As a parting gift from the cadet officers, Lt. Col. Argo was presented with a traveling bag. Twenty three seniors received their commission on May 24, 1941 with six others getting their gold bars after they turned 21 years of age. The following year 34 seniors were awarded their commission by Major General Thomas A. Terry, commanding general of Second Corps Area. Watching the commissioning ceremonies was the entire cadet batta¬lion of 400 cadets. A month prior to the commissioning exercises, the ROTC unit was inspected by Lt. Col. Clark representing the Corps Area Commander. The PMS & T started the fall of 1940 as a newly promoted full colonel and also in charge of the newly formed Enlisted Reserve Corps. Complying with the War Department requirements, the military training program now required 2/3 physical training and 1/3 devoted to military drill. Drill periods could not "be used for physical training maneuvers." 54 Now that the nation was involved in another major war, the War Department felt that it was important to maintain its citizens' moral by keeping them well informed. Out of the one hundred fifty selected War Information Centers; the University of Delaware was established as the center for Delaware. Two months later, the War Department once again looked at the University for assistance in the war effort. The War Manpower Commission selected the University of Delaware as an Army Training School. A total of 281 institutions had been selected to train scientists and other specialists. Concluding the year on a routine note, the first noteworthy ROTC event was the Annual Military Ball on January 8, 1943. About 170 persons were in attendance at the Old College. Transportation difficulties precluded a change from the DuPont Country Club, its customary location. In order to meet the constant demand for Army engineers, the Army began sending Army trainees to the University for advanced engineering study. "With their appearance on campus, beginning April, all students in the advanced ROTC course were called to active duty and put into uniform for the remainder of the term." 55 "Upon graduation, the seniors were sent to an Army Finishing School for intensive training before being granted their commissions." 56 By April 1943, over 650 graduate students from the University of Delaware either were or had been on active duty. Since 1941, five honorary doctorate degrees had been conferred to University of Delaware students and high ranking members in the Armed Forces. All energy for military training had been converted towards the ASTRP (Army Specialized Training Reservists Program). "The graduation exercises for the first group of ASTRP men to finish the full three term Army educational program at the University of Delaware was held in Mitchell Hall, Friday, December 1, 1944." 57 Filling the recently vacated positions, 100 new ASTRP students were assigned to the University of Delaware on February 12, 1945. Thirty-nine of these graduated on June the first. The whole program started all over again on August 1st with the assignment of 300 new trainees. For the out¬standing job that the University did in the war effort, it was the first of thirty units to be honored by the Second Service Command on March 5, 1946. "The Meritor¬ious Service Unit Plaque was awarded to the 1294th Service Command Unit ASTRP- ROTC for performing and discharging its responsibilities in a superior manner from 1 January 1944 to 1 December 1945."58
CHAPTER 5 POST WORLD WAR TWO
1. During the war period, the ROTC unit was almost completely discontinued, being replaced by the ASTRP. For the year 1945-1946, the only military training given was to a small group of about 50 freshmen, instruction being given in accordance with an interim program prescribed by the War Department. The unit was revived as a C.A.C. Anti-aircraft Unit at the beginning of 1946. 2. Personnel: (a) Army, Col. R.T. Pendleton and Lt. Col. Layton A. Zimmer, both officers of long service in the Regular Army, were assigned to duty with the Military Department and reported for duty shortly before the end of the academic year. The other officers on duty with the unit were lost shortly thereafter for relief from active duty. The seven non-commissioned- officers on duty with the department in 1946 were considered capable and well suited to their duties.
(b) Students: Enrollment in the Military Department in 1946 was unusually small due to a number of causes. No seniors were eligible for enrollment, there were only 25 sophomores enrolled, these being the rem¬nant from the small group of freshmen in the ROTC the previous year, and a large proportion of the freshmen class was excused from military training due to previous service in the Armed Forces during the war. Total enrollment for beginning 1946 was 159. 3. Training: New programs of instructions for the ROTC were published by the War Department in the summer of 1946 and fully implemented. The War Department also published a new textbook for ROTC before the year was out, aiding greatly in the training. Several inspections of the unit were made during the year by officers from Headquarters First Army and the final inspection on 19 and 20 May.
4. Building space assigned: The Military Department was assigned office space and classrooms on the second floor of the Old College building at the beginning of the year, and retained the storeroom and arms room in the same building and the garage north of it near the B & O. tracks. The accommodations were adequate for the year. Further consideration was given to additional classroom space anticipating increased enrollment.
The small bore target range in the old gymnasium occupied by lockers of the Department of Physical Education, seriously interfered with training in rifle marksmanship.
5. Uniforms and equipment: Excellent officer type uniforms were provided for all ROTC students. The old Springfield rifles were replaced by the Ml (Garaud) semi-automatic and sufficient automatic rifles, machine guns, mortars, and other equipment were on hand for basic training. A 40mm Bofors AA gun with power plant and director had also been secured.1
On November 1, 1945 Colonel Ashbridge retired from the Army the second time and relinquished temporary command to Captain Donald R. Morton Jr. After "the expiration of his leave about February 1," 2 Colonel Ashbridge returned to his former civilian job as director of the Business Guidance and Placement Bureau at the University of Delaware. That same month 38 ROTC cadets participated in the Victory Parade held in Wilmington.
Shortly after the Second World War, the army took a serious look at expanding its ROTC program. On March 11, 1946 the First Army with headquarters at Fort Bragg, NC sent an inspection team consisting of Lt. Col. Robert C. Ingulls and Capt. Gaines Groathmey to the University of Delaware. A study of the type of facilities and equipment, courses of instruction and training was conducted to determine whether they would meet future Army needs. At the same time the quality of the military personnel was also taken under close scrutiny. Similar inspections were made along the Atlantic Seaboard. The findings were obviously favorable since the Advanced Course ROTC was reactivated in the fall of 1946.
Eligible students had to "have at least two years further academic work before graduation, for enrollment in the first year advanced course was made by the President of the University and the Professor of Military Science and Tactics. Upon successful completion of the two-year advanced course, the War Department recommended appointment as a 2nd. Lt., Coast Artillery Corps, in the Officers' Reserve Corps. Furthermore, the students also agreed to complete the advanced summer camp of six weeks duration after completion of the first year advanced course, and to accept an appointment as a 2nd Lt. in the Officers' Reserve Corps if tendered."3 Training for "the first year advanced course provided training in branch immaterial subjects, four class hours and one drill hour per week."4 Additional prerequisites required of potential, advanced cadets were to be a U.S. citizen, meet prescribed physical standards, and be within the age group of 19 and 26 at the time of admission.
The Advanced Course offered enlisted veterans an opportunity to secure a commission in the Officer Reserve Corps. Veterans with more than one year of active duty in any of the Armed Services were eligible for the Advanced Course. Veteran enrollment figures at the University of Delaware by March 1946 showed an incredible, almost ten-fold increase over the previous year. This year 248 Freshmen, 76 Sophomores, 50 Juniors, and 25 Seniors pursued the road of higher education. For the first time there were also 2 Freshmen and 1 Sophomore female vets. The previous year there were 31 Freshmen, 17 Sophomores, 6 Juniors, and 2 Senior veterans enrolled as students. Existing records do not readily reveal how many of these vets were enrolled in ROTC. Unusual by today's standards was the fact that the War Department had limited the number of ROTC cadet enrollment.
In May 1946 "Lt. Col. Layton A. Zimmer C.A.C. reported for duty at the University of Delaware as an Associate Professor of Military Science and Tactics. For the first time in the Department of Military Science, there were two colonels commanding the ROTC. Colonel Randolph T. Pendleton had been assigned as the PMS & T in April and was assisted by Lt. Col. Zimmer a month later. A prestigious award, the United States Coast Artillery Association Medal was introduced in July 1946 and remained in effect as long as the U of D ROTC was a Coast Artillery unit. Strict rules and procedures governed the selection process of a potential recipient. Thirty points were awarded for academics other than military subjects, forty points for grades in military science with the remaining thirty awarded for personal qualifications. A complete list of all awards presented to the present day cadets may be found in Chapter 10. Roads to the future Air Force ROTC were constructed as early as August 1946, followed by several years of a feasibility study. However, the lack of adequate class¬room space as well as quarters, for cadre precluded a speedy establishment of an Air Force ROTC unit. It was to take another thirty-six years for its fruition. The first contingency of Air Force ROTC cadre arrived in the summer of 1982 with classes commencing that fall. The following summer, the first two cadets received their gold bars as Second Lieutenants after having completed their field training. Ironically, both were former Army ROTC cadets. Initially, the Basis Army ROTC students resembled anything but future officers. Their mix of military and civilian attire was the consternation of many. The small physical stature of many basic cadets caused further problems for the Supply Sergeant who had the students that were still going through the growing stages. It was decided that the students either wear a complete uniform or none at all. By the fall of 1946, the ROTC ranks had swollen to 157 and more than doubled the next fall when it reached 427.
Things turned considerably better for the nine Advanced Course cadets in the spring of 1947. They were the beneficiaries of the Army ROTC publicity campaign to increase enrollment. That year's spring fashion was a sharp new uniform with the appropriate visored garrison hat; of course without the customary "fifty-mission crush." It should also be noted that as of November 1946 these students received a monthly check of $20.46. Sophomores that joined the ROTC ranks received about a $20.00 monthly ration allowance and were required to attend five hours of military science classes. Attendance at summer camp paid the amount of a Regular Army private. Upon completion of the Advanced Course, he received 3 credits per semester. Inspectors of the March 19 and 20 inspection "reported that the University of Delaware unit compared favorably with all other units under the jurisdiction of First Army." 5 April 6-12 was designated as "Army Week", celebrated at Mitchell Hall and attended by many military dignitaries. At the conclusion of the program the Department of Military Science held an open house. Having lapsed, "occasioned by the war", 6 for almost four years, the General J. Ernest Smith Prizes for academic excellence in Military Science were again awarded in May, 1947. Presentation of the awards by Major General John W. O'Daniel ("Iron Mike"), commandant of the U.S. Army Infantry School also marked the final military formation.
By the fall of 1947, the ROTC battalion had reached 450 cadets, tripling the 150 of the previous year. This was attributed to some degree to fewer ex-servicemen. In modern terms, there were 275 MS I cadets, 125 MS II's, 35 MS III's, and 10 seniors, MS IV cadets. "Tuesday, October 21, the ROTC unit had its first formation of all student members." 7
In the very beginning of the new year, it was felt that the program was on solid grounds and a strong effort was made to instill even more military discipline within the ROTC ranks. An eleven point memorandum addressing academics, discipline, protocol, and adherence to them was issued by the PMS & T on February 5, 1948. Paragraph one stressed the responsibility of each student. The second made reference to good grades as well as demerits. Of most importance was the next paragraph which dealt with Leadership, Drill, and Exercises of Command. Para¬graphs four and five addressed the types of uniforms and how to wear them. Addressed also were the care and maintenance of the rifle, breakdown of the demerits, familiarity with the bulletin board, selection of cadet rank, and awards for outstanding proficiency. In con¬clusion, the cadets were urged to continue with the Advanced Course.
On April 24, 1948 the first post war military ball was held in the women's gym. The Scabbard and Blade Honor Society, sponsor of the ball, made 300 tickets available at a price of $2.40 per couple. Between 19 June and 31 July, 40 advanced students attended summer camp at Fort Bragg, NC. Besides practicing their leadership abilities, the cadets also fired numerous types of Field Artillery and Anti-aircraft guns.
Closing out the year was a freshmen ROTC small arms firing competition. "During the course of the competi¬tion which was conducted at the Newark National Guard Armory, a total of 248 freshmen cadets completed firing. Thirty cadets qualified as 'Expert Riflemen,7 108 cadets as 'Sharpshooter' and 82 cadets as 'Marksmen'". 8
On the first of January 1949 the University of Delaware ROTC, a Coast Artillery Corps Anti- aircraft "unit was transferred from the jurisdiction of the First Army to the Second Army, with headquarters at Fort George G. Meade, MD. At the same time, its designation was changed to the 2477th Array Service Unit." 9
Eleven prizes and awards for a job well done were awarded to cadets in a formal presentation ceremony on May 24, 1949. A cadet student body of some 500 cadets was one of the largest in the 100 year history. That year 25 senior cadets received their commission. After 38 years service in the Army's Coast Artillery Corps, Colonel Pendleton decided to give civilian life a try, as a retired Brigadier General. The reign of an impressive record was officially turned over to a already familiar figure, Lt. Col. Layton A. Zimmer. Colonel Zimmer inherited 541 students that had enrolled in the ROTC program. "Of this number 266 were Freshmen, 190 were Sophomores, 39 were Juniors, and 46 were Seniors." 10 To assist him with this monumental task were four officer cadre and eight enlisted cadre. As "an Anti-aircraft Artillery unit, the Delaware battalion had its instruc¬tion schedule expanded that fall to include considerably more gunnery and tactics training. For use in the additional training given in the weapons, the Second Army sent a 90mm and a 40mm gun to the University." 11 "Small arms firing competition; for members of the first year advanced ROTC were held in November. All 37 cadets firing qualified as follows: 9 as Expert Riflemen, 18 as Sharpshooters, and 10 as Marksmen."12 All Seniors and selected Juniors were issued "tailor-made uniforms instead of drawing an issue type uniform. The form became the property of the cadets after they successfully completed the Advanced Course ROTC and were commissioned as 2nd Lieutenants." 13 That same month 16 senior cadets received the "Distinguished Military Student" award.
CHAPTER 6 REVOLUTIONARY CHANGES
The new decade was to experience many changes in the Army ROTC, starting with the commutation of subsistence and commutation in lieu of uniforms. A 90 cent allowance for rations was established for ROTC cadets in the Advanced Course. "Thus for a 30 day month, each cadet in the Advanced ROTC course received a $27.00 check for subsistence on or about the tenth of each month during the school year. The finds for commutation in lieu of uniforms for members of the Advanced Course was increased from $84.00 to $90.00 for two years for each cadet. Under this authority tailored uniforms were purchased for each cadet in the Advanced Course. Upon graduation he had a complete uniform (field) with overseas cap, regulation shoes and raincoat." l The allowable number of advanced course students was limited to 85 with no restriction placed on the basic course enrollment.
Under Lt. Col. Zimmer's guidance, the ROTC unit was reorganized in March, 1950. Its purpose was to "provide greater opportunity to advanced cadets to exercise command responsibilities." 2 Maintaining the high standard of proficiency, "the University of Delaware ROTC was selected by Hqs. 2nd Army as a top level model unit to be viewed in the planning phases of other installations." 3 During this time, a tremendous amount of veteran interest was shown towards Advanced ROTC. Totally voluntary, the course consisted of 5 hours weekly instruction and 3 credit hours per semester.
An apparent oversight by the "Committee on Educational Theory and Practice" on the issue of elective courses as related to ROTC, almost spelled disaster for the ROTC. Fortunately for Lt. Col. Zimmer, the issue was brought to light when he addressed this to the chairman of the committee. ROTC, for students who have completed the two years basic course requirements, is selective on an application basis. However, unless provision is made in any required general education program to make possible the taking of advanced ROTC as an elective course (5 hours) on the same basis-as other electives, to include credit toward a degree, students will be unable to elect ROTC and this will thereby eliminate the course from the University since it is necessary to have at least 75 students in the advanced courses to receive Department of Army support. This is indeed a serious matter unless University authorities decide to drop ROTC as a course. When it is considered that the advanced course represents all the advantages of a yearly $300.00 scholarship, I believe it would not be the desire of the University to inaugurate a course which would preclude any student from taking the advanced ROTC course if desired. 4 Subsequent corrective action alleviated the potential problem.
Effective 3 April 1950, a Chemical Corps unit was established at the University by authority of the TAG (The Adjutant General) of the Department of the Army. Prior to their departure for summer, all cadets took part in the final parade ceremony and observed the award and commissioning ceremony held on 23 May 1950. That summer,, the future officers attended six weeks of summer at Fort George G. Meade from June 17 to July 29. "While at camp, the cadet received $75.00 per' month, board, uniforms, medical attention, and was furnished transportation to and from camp." 5 In June of 1950 both Lt. Col. Zimmer and his assistant Lt. Col. Asborne were promoted to full colonel. The first and only time that two full colonels were in charge of the Military Science Department.
Starting with the ROTC class of 1951 was also a new PMS & T, Colonel Zimmer transferred to Fort Custer, Michigan and was replaced by Colonel Francis A. Hause. "Lt. Col. Walter K. Kuehler became the head of the newly found Chemical Corps ROTC." 6 The fall term had by far the largest enrollment up to that time. "More than 600 cadets turned out for the first drill. Of the 600; 282 were freshmen, 208 were sophomores, and 110 were in the Advanced Course." 7 Because of their veteran status, scholastic standing, and aptitude, five seniors were selected for an accelerated advanced course. According to Lt. Col. Kuehler, there were "52 students in the 2nd year Basic and 16 in the 1st year Advanced" " Chemical Corps Course.
November 1950 marked yet another first. The Military Science Department received information that women could now be commissioned in the Regular Army. Prospective females had to be college graduates or prospective graduates in their senior year, 21 years old but not over 27 by September 1, 1951. Those that passed the competitive screening process received a direct commission in the WAC (Women's Army Corps) Section of the Officer's Reserve Corps. The following summer, all successful applicants spent several months of active duty at Fort Lee, Virginia being paid Regular Army lieutenant's wages. Those that qualified at the end of camp tour were appointed to the Regular Army. A military ceremony on November 28 honored eight "Distinguished Military Students." Considerable excitement was around in December with the addition of a 90 mm anti-aircraft gun to the ROTC training program. "For the first time since World War II, the University permitted freshmen to enter officially at the beginning of Summer Session instead of in September. Boys were admitted because of the prevailing unsettled status of military requirements, which meant that many young men found it profitable to get some college courses before they were called for active duty." 9
Colonel Hause's retirement in March, 1951 vacated the PMS & T position which was temporarily filled by Lt. Col. Kuehler until the arrival of Colonel Joseph R. Hughes in April. It was announced by the PMS & T that a "volunteer honor company from among the members of the Cadet Regiment at the University" 10 was to be formed into a chapter of the "Perishing Rifles." "This was a National Honorary Military Society, principally for students from the basic ROTC, but with officers from the advanced course. It was founded in 1894 by General (then Lieutenant) John J. Pershing at the University of Nebraska. The Rifles were a highly trained and efficient organization, and performed at special military cere¬monies and functions for many years11. That year's Military Ball was held on April 28, 1951 in the Women's Gym. All Vets had cordially been invited.
A highly unusual occurrence took place in the Department that caused the cadre and cadets to see double several times. It just so happened that three sets of identical twins decided to enter the ROTC ranks in their freshmen year.
Between June 16 and July 27, 1951 sixty-three advanced ROTC cadets attended summer camp. Forty-nine reported to the Anti-aircraft ROTC Camp at Fort Bliss, Texas. During the three weeks of weapon firing, the cadets had the opportunity to fire the 40 mm and 50 caliber automatic weapons, also the heavy 90 mm and 120 mm guns. The other fourteen who trained at the Army Chemical Corps in Maryland had courses in toxicological, chemical, and biological warfare. They also had the opportunity to shoot "the 42 inch chemical mortar using both high explosive and chemical shells."12
In the fall of 1951, 18 students were recognized as "Distinguished Military Students" by Col. Hafer. One of those students, Joseph M. Lank eventually would become a Major General and the Adjutant General of the Delaware National Guard form 1981 to 1988.
Starting the new year off right, the Cadet Regiment held its 6th Annual Military Ball in the Carpenter Field House on January 11, 1952. Following the custom of pre¬vious balls, a ball queen was elected; an occasion no longer practiced. Music was provided by the Second Army Band with a marching exhibition by the Delaware Rifles at half time. The following year's Annual Military Ball, held on January 16, was open to all. Music was provided by the 18 piece 324th Array Band from. Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Enrollment was again at an all time high with "151 men enrolled in the junior and senior courses, and about 480 freshmen and sophomores," 13 beating the 1950 record by over thirty. Prior to Summer Camp, 20 men in the ROTC program were awarded Military Honors. The 1953 Summer Camp was divided between the Anti-aircraft Artillery Camp at Fort Bliss, Texas and the Chemical Corps ROTC at Fort McClelland, Texas. Approximately a total of 1500 cadets reported to Fort Bliss that summer, with fifty-two from the University of Delaware. An additional twenty went to Fort' McClelland. Cadets par¬ticipated in practical training similar to their predecessors of 1951 and 1952.
A change of command occurred on the PMS & T in the fall of 1953. The new PMS & T was Colonel Eugene W. Hiddleston, an Artillery officer. With the change in command also came a change in the ROTC program from a Chemical Corps and Artillery to a general military science training program.
Although the change was effective in September, it did not effect the members of the senior class of the ROTC program. The readjustment was intended to effect significant savings in personnel, equipment, and money, while increasing the efficiency of the program and achieving a better balanced academic base. The general military Science program was planned to produce young officers who would be qualified to serve as combat leaders, administrative officers, as officers of the technical service after they had received specialized training at a service school of the branch to which they were assigned. Under the new system a greater flexibility in ROTC graduates met the fluctuating requirements of the various arms and services.
This program had long been advocated by educators directly connected with the military field. The training de-emphasized specialization and concentrated on pro¬ducing junior officers who were well grounded in the fundamentals of the military profession. In designing the new training curriculum, known as "General Military Science, every effort was made to produce a college level course which would command the respect of civilian educa¬tors, challenge .the students' intellect, and satisfy the highest training requirements." 14 Today's ROTC program is directly patterned after this program.
Adding to the festivities of the Military Ball on January 15 was the twenty member Second Army Dance Band from Fort George G. Meade. Eleven senior ROTC cadets received their Second Lieutenant bars in February 6, 1954. Members of the newly commissioned officers were assigned to Fort Meade, Maryland, Fort McClellan, Alabama, Fort Bliss, Texas and Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Inspectors from the Second Army Area, Colonel George L. Holsinger accompanied by several other officers came to the University of Delaware on April 20, 1954 to inspect the ROTC unit. Seventeen cadets were honored for their various achievements on May 25, 1954. "Alterations to the Training House which had begun in 1953 were completed in 1954 and renamed Mechanical Hall. Since its construction in 1898, it has served numerous purposes. In the begin¬ning the building house was the combined electrical and engineering department. Rapid growth of the department forced the building of an east wing in 1903. Still another small addition was added in 1911. In 1899, the State Pathological and Bacteriological Laboratory also was housed in the building." 15 After the First World War Mechanical Engineering was taught separately in Mechanical Hall. In 1930 it became the Training House for varsity team members. "During World War II, the site was used for military housing." 16 Then in 1954 the keys to the entire facilities were turned over to Col. Hiddleston, PMS & T. Until present time, the Department of Military Science has been the sole occupant of these facilities. Every year seems to bring some type of change to the Military Science Department. September 1954 was no exception. That month the ROTC moved their headquarters from the second floor of Old College into the Old Training House dormitory. "In addition to the newly acquired location, the military department still utilized the gun shed, which housed a classroom and a storage area of military vehicles. To complete the ROTC requirements at the University, efforts were made to convert the old military laboratory, a sheet metal and brick structure, into a small bore rifle range." 17 In the fall, the first ROTC review held in Mid- November, Company D was selected the winning company. Colonel Hiddleston stated that "there existed a striking similarity between leaders on the football field and in military and civilian ranks. The qualities which produce a good leader in the Armed Forces are the identical ones required in a good leader in athletics and in industry. Leadership qualities are necessary for a man to succeed in any field. It is interesting to note that of the 14 seniors who played football during 1954-1955, eleven were members of the ROTC." l8 March, 1955 brought an unusual event to the ROTC program, the Regiment exchanged the military ball queen's crown for the eagles of an Honorary Cadet Colonel.
March 17, was the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Scabbard and Blade Society at the University of Wisconsin. The society was formed by five cadet officers of the Cadet Corps at Wisconsin with the purpose of advancing the interest of military training. From this corps of cadet officers in 1905 a national society developed into 135 companies by 1955. Delaware was admitted to the society in 1932 as I Company of the Seventh Regiment. Only WW II interrupted active work by I Company since 1932. David Arm, former Dean of the Engineering School, was instrumental in the re-establishment of I Company in 1947. Membership in Scabbard and Blade is limited to members of the advanced ROTC and selection is based on scholarship, leadership, and character. A candidate for membership must have a minimum index of 2.2 and be in the upper one-third of the cadet's military class. 19
Nineteen cadets were honored for their outstanding performance in Military Science on March 15, 1955. The annual inspection held on April 19, 1955 was conducted by Col. Wayland H. Parr of the Transportation Corps, Washington and Jefferson College, assisted by other officers. The six weeks summer camp, attended by 50 advanced ROTC students was held at Fort George G. Meade from June 25 to August 5. These ROTC graduates received their gold bars on September 8, 1955. "Nine UD women were selected by ROTC cadet officers to sponsor the band, companies, and battalion headquarters of the military regiment for the following year." 20
Carpenter Field House was the scene of the Annual Ball on February 24, 1956. "An estimated 200 couples were in attendance listening to "the music of Len Whann and his instrumentiers." 21 "An inspection board consisting of Lt. Col. Cornelius Coghill and staff inspected the ROTC Cadet Corps on May 15, 1956." 22
This was followed by an interesting day and spent by thirty-one Delaware ROTC seniors of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The highlight of the annual field trip was the test firing of the 280 mm, "atomic cannon."-Replacing Col. E. W. Hiddleston as PMS & T was Colonel Daniel N. Sundt. Adhering to the customs of previous years, the cadets once again chose "women sponsors for the ROTC Cadet Regiment units." 23 In the fall of 1956, 51 students enrolled in the ROTC Advance Course. High compliments were bestowed upon the Delaware ROTC unit by visiting General Charles E. Hart in February, 1957. Following last years example, this year's Annual Military Ball was again held at Carpenter Field House; with music provided by George Maddon's orchestra. The queen was chosen from among the girl sponsors.
A proposal by Rensselear Polytechnical Institution of non-credit ROTC training was turned down by 42 of the 52 institutions offering ROTC. Although not following Rensselear's example, the University Faculty did, how- ever, decide to reduce the number of credits by one for all of the military courses. Effective in the fall of 1957, "credits for the freshmen and sophomore courses were lowered from two to one per semester, and from three to two for the advanced courses. " 24 Pressured mainly by the engineering school, "it was determined by the committee that military was separate from academic work, and that the basic ROTC course was not primarily of academic value. Furthermore, the advance students received pay for taking the course as well as a commission." 25
Hard practice paid off for the Delaware Rifles Drill Team when they won first place in a competition in the fall. Col. Sundt was pleased to find that fifty-five students had enrolled in the advanced course of ROTC.
The Annual Military Ball was held at Carpenter Field House on March 7, 1958 with the George Madden providing the music. Under the guidance of the PMS & T, a thorough weeding out process of Advanced ROTC applicants commenced beginning the new year. By mid-February, 46 applicants had been accepted into the Advanced Course. A framed copy of the PMS & T's responsibility in the development of Army officers was prominently displayed in Col. Sundt's office. It read: "The primary function of the PMS & T is to select men with character, initiative, intelligence, and energetic alertness, with the integrity required to lead troops in ground combat to develop them by example and precept, ruthlessly weed out any who do not measure up. The PMS & T should not recommend for commission those whom he would not desire to have serve under him in combat or to lead his son in battle."26 Those students that filtered through the selection process were invited to a ROTC Orientation Program at Aberdeen Proving Grounds on April 18, 1958. Prior to commissioning, sixteen senior cadets were honored as. distinguished military students. For the third year in a row, the fifty-one man Junior ROTC class and two seniors spent six weeks of Summer Camp at Fort George G. Meade. Training consisted of infantry, individual and crew-served weapons, and tactics of infantry commencing June 21 and concluding August 1.
The issue of voluntary ROTC brought considerable controversy with an article in "Look" magazine in the fall of 1958. Claims of insufficient number and quality of the future Officer Corps, and the possible elimination of compulsory ROTC brought total disagreement from ROTC officials. Like the four classes before them, the 1960 graduates also went to Summer Camp at Fort Meade from June 20 until July 31, 1959. While at camp, the cadets paraded in review honoring Col. Daniel N. Sundt's military career and his retirement. Placing second out of 22 schools participating at Summer Camp started the year on a high note for the 1960 Delaware ROTC grade. Succeeding Col. Sundt as the new PMS & T was Lt. Col. Gerald H. Ragsdale who assumed his post in September 1959. "Beginning in the school year 1960-1961, the ROTC cadets took about 20% of the military instructions in University taught subjects such as science, general psy¬chology, effective communications, political institu¬tions and political developments. Those curricula courses reemphasized the importance of a Baccalaureate Degree on one of the requirements for an Army commis¬sion." 27 The changes lessened the burden on the students and also allowed for the strictly military subjects such as crew-served weapons to be taught during Summer Camp. With the final authorization to modify the ROTC courses granted by the Army, the basic course was reduced from 180 to 150 hours, while the Advanced Course went from 300 to 210 hours. The 1900 Annual Military Ball on March 5 was a copy of the previous year's. Music was again provided by Charles Coletta and his orchestra with the crowning of a ball queen and an exhibition of precision drill by the "Delaware Rifles" drill team. Honors presentation was followed by the commissioning ceremony a few weeks later.
CHAPTER 7 A DECADE OF CHANGE AND CONTROVERSY
Starting the new year, "the Military Science Department announced a special course in Advanced Military Science which enabled selected applicants to complete the four-semester Advanced ROTC program and qualify for Army commissions ion the next three semesters. The new course (MS 305 normally given only in the fall semesters, was extended over the next two semesters. This allowed those selected to take the first half of Military Science 305 concurrently with MS 306 in the spring and the second half of MS 305 with MS 405 in the fall." l
Several years later, numbers were assigned to identify the specific semester. The fall courses for juniors and seniors were numbered MS 305 and MS 405 respectively and the spring courses MS 306 and MS 406. Braving the harsh wintery elements, twenty-three ROTC cadets represented Delaware in the John F. Kennedy inaugural review on January 20, 1961. A display of modern weapons of the 60's created quite an impression upon the cadets and viewing public. March 8 and 9 provided the viewers with the opportunity to have a close-up view of the "new Ml4 Rifle, M60 Machine Gun, SS10 Guided Anti-tank Rocket, 106 MM Anti-tank Recoilless Rifle, 'Bazooka' Anti- tank Rocket Launcher and the Army 'Mule7 vehicle."
Cadet John McDonald, appointed to the Brigade Executive Office in March was another future general. Brigadier General McDonald is the present commander of the 26lst Signal Command (National Guard) in Dover, Delaware. The 1961 Military Ball was an open invitation held in the Dover Room of the Student Center on March 18 with music provided by Malty's Band. Selection of a Ball Queen and performance by the "Delaware Rifles" were again some of the highlights. T-he following year's Military Ball on March 17 featured Buddy Williams, while the 1963 Ball held on March 15 featured Arlen Taylor. That same month 153 of the 2325 sophomores had applied for the 70 advanced course positions. Forty three juniors completed summer camp at Fort George G. Meade during June and July. School Year 1961-62 saw one of the largest enrollments in the University of Delaware ROTC with 1086 cadets. Of these 572 were freshmen and 391 sophomores. Their first review was held on October 24. Although rifle marksmanship was a new experience for most freshmen, of the 294 that shot, 95 managed to qualify, "while the remaining 199 made excuses." 3 Interesting positions were expressed in the February 1962 issue of the "Review" in a literary debate questioning the freedom of expres¬sion of military personnel. Co1onel Edward G. Alien, U.S. Infantry replaced Colonel Gerald H. Ragsdale as the new PMS & T in September 1962. Six mid-term graduates received the gold bars in February 1963. The mid-May inspection of the ROTC unit was conducted by Colonel Larner of Virginia Polytechnical Institute. "Ten cadets in the Advanced ROTC program received the distinguished Military Student Award during the Presidential Review on Frazier Field on November 14, 1963." *
Once again, the pendulum questioning compulsory ROTC swung way off center beginning; in the fall of 1963 until the spring of 1964. As mentioned before, it was not resolved until about a decade later.
"The ROTC Annual Military Ball was held in the Dover Room of the Student Center on April 11, 1964," 5 follow¬ing the guidelines of customary protocol. Music was provided by Billy Butterfield and his orchestra. A Military Review during the Honors Day exercises on May 7 also gave the ROTC Brigade a chance to recognize its outstanding cadets. That June, 52 senior cadets received their commission.
Colonel Edward G. Alien allegedly expressed no real concern about a 37 percent enrollment drop for school year 1964-65. He merely "emphasized that there was a fluctuation of enrollment in colleges all over the country, but that each year the total number of graduated officers remained about the same." 6 Figures of the past half of a decade showed 106 Advanced Course cadets in 1959, 101 in 1960, 119 in 1961, 121 in 1962, 143 in 1963, dropping down to 90 in 1964. It was claimed that over 1,500 officers had been commissioned at Delaware since the beginning of the Military Science program.
Beginning the new school year, an impressive number of 1,316 cadets passed in review. Company D was judged to be the best company. Notoriety of the Delaware Rifles demanded many engagements; one of these was the 1965 Inaugural Parade in Washington, D.C. "Eighteen February graduates were commissioned Second Lieutenants in the U.S. Army Reserve at a military reception on February 19." 7 Needed funds for the annual Military Ball that year were provided by the Advanced ROTC cadets who had to buy and sell Ball tickets. Reduction in rank was threatened for those who refused to pay for their $6.00 tickets to attend the Ball on March 27 at the Dover Room of the Student Center. Next year's Ball on March 26 was held at the same location and the hottest item on campus that year. "As it had been in the past 49 years, people jammed the Student Center in an effort to buy tickets before it was sold out." 8 Whether or not this was the fifteenth dance as claimed is really not critical and does not diminish the fact that it was a huge success. "Under a new program initiated by the Department of the Army, two full scholarships for Advanced Reserve Officer Training Corps cadets were allocated to the University of Delaware in April. The scholarships provided tuition, fees, books, and laboratory expenses for the junior and senior years, plus a retainer fee of $50.00 a month. Applicants had to be less than 23 years old on June 30, 1965, had to complete their second year of basic ROTC that semester, and rank in the upper third of the ROTC class and the upper half of the academic class." 9 To allow for an easier transition from the ROTC to Army life, the wives of the Army Officers of the Military Science Department held an orientation on the distaff side of service in the U.S. Army on May 6. Apparently scholarships were the answer to the enrollment problem since it doubled in November of 1965. "That year's enrollment of 68 Juniors was more than twice that of 33 the previous year and reportedly higher than any school from Maine to Kentucky.” 10 A total of 400 four year and 600 two year scholarships were made available throughout the country.
For the select few in ROTC, that are always searching for more fulfillment and challenges, a newly established unit was the answer created in the winter of 1965-66, the Ranger unit "composed of a serious dedicated core of 40 men was designed to develop the individual's self- confidence, leadership, and skills in the application of basic principles and techniques." 11 Twenty- three years later, the "completely voluntary and non-committal" unit is still a drawing card for the same type of individuals demanding something different. Like then predecessors, today's ROTC Rangers not only meet the standards set by the founders of the unit, but have gone beyond the realm envisioned by the originators. "Ranger Challenge" has become the most sought after competition among Ranger units of the various colleges and universities. These yearly competitions test Rangers' shooting skills, ability in terrain orienteering, assemble and disassemble a M16 Rifle and M60 Machine Gun, physical endurance, map reading, communication exercises as well as test their physical stamina.
By fall 1967 the question about compulsory ROTC became more frequent and more serious. Although mostly slanted in favor of the dissidents, some valid points were brought to light. Several sources felt that mandatory ROTC would infringe upon the college life as well as eliminate the experience of assuming responsibility in making your own decision. They continued by stating that since ROTC was not for everyone, only those inclined should take it. With that in mind, the program could become more rigorous and subsequently more enjoyable thus the one credit hour would find some usefulness. A brief one-act play on Compulsory ROTC performed in the West Dining Hall on October 2nd and 3rd brought mixed reactions from onlookers. Since the performance obviously did not achieve the desired reaction, its organizers, "expressed concern for 'apathy' of many students on campus for refusing to even listen to anyone with contrary views. " 12
The first physical protest expressed itself in the form of a walk-off and walk-on during the October 12th inspection drill. At the approach of a flower-power painted volkswagen bus. "30 ROTC cadets dropped from the ranks and walked off the field. Shortly after the cadets staged the walkout, a group of some thirty or forty students, both men and females, formed ranks and walked onto the field. Marching like toy soldiers and crying "The Army has made us men' the group paraded around the area for nearly five minutes."13 COL Alien's reaction was one of non-concern and stated that they (Military Science Department) would merely take a second attendance check and simply mark those students absent. The preceding week both the SGA (Student Government Association) and MRHA (Men's Residence Hall Association) urged the Board of Trustees to exclude the four semester ROTC requirements. Student reaction varied fron support to ridicule. At the first faculty meeting of that school year on October 16, 1967 " no vote was taken on the issue because the faculty had not yet been given a recommendation on the question by the University Courses and Curricular Committee." 14 Considerable time had to be devoted in the formulation of a position paper due to the complexity of the issue. However, consideration concerning the issue had already been proposed the previous years. By October 26, six of the walk- on students had been identified and subsequently suspended indefinitely from the university, with a seventh suspension on November 10. Large student protest rallies followed each suspension. Carried away with the momentum of time, a minority of the faculty body had decided to cast their lot with the dissenting body. As a result, all faculty members were reminded not to forget their obligation. "The still lingering ROTC 'walk-out' controversy came to light again in the first week of December as three students, two of them coeds, were suspended from the university." 1S By mid-December only six students remained on suspension and the ROTC requirement remained in force. Spring registration in December showed that about 130 students had failed to register for Military Science. A written reminder sent to them by the university reminded them of their military obligation. Unlike "Boston University which dropped academic credit for military training courses in September of 1968 after walk-in,"16 the University of Delaware did not succumb to the pressure immediately. COL Alien retired from the Army in November 1967 and was temporarily replaced by LTC Lewis S. Selby his associate professor.
Then in June of 1968 COL Frank J. Nemethy, US Infantry took command of the Military Science Department. Through the turmoil, the University of Delaware ROTC program managed to survive a few months longer before also having to make changes. On February 5th, fourteen mid- term graduates received their Lieutenant bars. The Annual Military Ball, restricted to Advanced Cadets, was held on March 15th at the Executive Inn in Wilmington. In response to the military activities, the anti-ROTC faction held a Non-Military Ball the following evening at the Orchard Ave Coffee House. Honor's Day ceremonies were held on May 2, 1968 with the majority of the awards being received by the top 25% of the class. That year the national ROTC program commissioned 17,000 2LTs.
CHAPTER 8 A NEW ERA IN ROTC
Realizing that further opposition towards the compulsory ROTC issue would only prolong the eventual outcome, the university decided to make ROTC voluntary beginning with the 1968-1969 school year. For the fall of 1969, the Army had increased the total two year ROTC scholarships to 1338 with applications being accepted in 1968. Also realizing.the importance of military service, a sixteen year old freshman, became the youngest cadet ever to enroll in ROTC. That year 87 cadets were com¬missioned as Second Lieutenants. Many of the 273 advanced course cadets enrolled in the fall of 1968 were campus leaders.
Physical retaliation against ROTC at the University of Delaware resumed in September with the fire-bombing of the Military Science building. "The fire was caused by a Molotov cocktail tossed through a rear window of Mechanical Hall. The fire bomb was found in the corner of a storage room, and destroyed approximately 30 pieces of clothing."1 Investigation by both Newark Police and the FBI ended with the arrest of two former students in February 1969.
After completing 35 hours of ground instruction and 35 hours of actual flying, six ROTC cadets received their flight wings in October of 1968. For the first time, ROTC offered a summer session in the summer of 1969. This provided "students admitted in February, transfer students and others to take Military Science to continue with the program during the normal academic year without "compromising two military science courses in one semester."2 Three Ivy League colleges voted to limit ROTC on their campuses or completely eliminate it by 1969-70. Responding to the issue, the Pentagon advocated ROTC to strengthen our Nation's defense. Due to Nixon's Draft Plan, the ROTC programs throughout the country experienced an almost 30% strength loss. "More students apparently were willing to gamble that the Selective Service would pass them by as draft calls decreased. This downward trend was further strongly influenced by shifts from required to voluntary ROTC."3
Defending military training on college campuses, a special Pentagon report said elimination of the ROTC program would decrease civilian influence within the national defense system. The report, answering campus criticisms and recommending continuation of ROTC, called upon colleges and universities to play stronger roles in Reserve Officer Training Corps affairs. The 61-page document was drawn up by six college educators and three senior military officers. The Secretary of Defense ordered the review in the wake of mounting dissent over ROTC. The committee conceded that its study came during a period of unprecedented faculty and student opposition to ROTC. The panel asserted that officer- education on civilian campuses strengthens our traditional civilian participation in and influence upon the military, whereas other training approaches yield more to domination by the military organization acting on its own. The committee said ROTC is in the national interest as a means of procuring half the regular officers in the service and recommended the program be strengthened and improved rather than dropped.4
"Nearly 200 cadets experienced realistic combat training at Fort Dix, N.J."5 at the end of April as a prelude to their 1969 summer camp. 950 cadets took part in the May ROTC ceremonies which were preceded by the award ceremonies in order to shorten the event. "A few dusty and subdued demonstrators marking the Annual Military Review"6 apparently had not heard of the resolution of voluntary ROTC. A literary note in the May 13, 1969 issue of "The Review" questioned the price of freedom and claimed that "Military Duty is gratifying." Breaking through the barriers of a previously all-male ROTC program in September 1969 was a young 18 year old girl who joined the ranks of 300 male cadets. What initially started as a joke ended in a serious voluntary commitment. December statistics on the ROTC program showed 205 sophomores out of 900 on campus were enrolled in the program. Undoubtedly, the uncertainty of the lottery system's impact had a direct effect on the large number of students enrolled.
The Pershing Rifles Company X of the 15th Regiment had become a member of the National Collegiate Organization in May of 1969. The well disciplined and impressive Pershing Rifles drill team represented the state of Delaware, marching in the annual Mardi Gras Parade in New Orleans in January 1970.
Mixed emotions were expressed when the Defense Department announced that the Delaware ROTC was one of 194 ROTC brigades being called to active duty by May of 1970 for service in Vietnam. A water pistol attack on Mechanical Hall by a group of YIP (Youth International Party) in May was met with indifference by the ROTC inhabitants. Opposing views of military involvement were expressed by General Joseph Scannell former Adjutant General of the Delaware National Guard and staff member of the ROTC. "Scannell expressed approval for the strike (against ROTC and Vietnam) but told students that it was a mistake to attack the presence of ROTC on campus."7 As expected, the ROTC staff naturally was on the side of the government and involvement in South East Asia. Furthermore Scannell "contended that the course material of ROTC had a legitimate place in the overall study of human knowledge, and should be considered just as legitimate as any other discipline."8
"Approximately 6,000 cadets from over 100 colleges and universities located in the 13-state First U. S. Army area attended the six weeks summer camp at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, PA, making it the nation's largest ROTC encampment."9 Out of 100 Delaware cadets in attendance between June 13 and August 13, 16 received their commission upon completing camp. Just prior to that, 69 seniors and last year's camp graduates received their second lieutenant bars. When the 1970 graduates returned in the fall; of 1971 as seniors, they in turn assisted in preparing the present junior class of cadets for their upcoming summer camp in 1972. "Approximately 150 ROTC cadets participated in the Novem¬ber exercise."10 A month prior to that, 50 volunteer ROTC Rangers exercised their male prowess at Beck's Pond. During that time any male student could be a Ranger. Today that privilege has been extended to female cadets, but denied to non-ROTC cadets. Although ROTC had already existed for three years on the U of D Campus, renewed anti-ROTC labels marked the beginning of school year 1970-1971 and lasted for the entire school year. In¬dependent "Review" poll results that fall were 66% in favor of maintaining the ROTC. Responding to the apparent interest in the military, a Scout Explorer post composed of 22 young men "was established at the University of Delaware in conjunction with the Department of Military Science. Activities included marksmanship, mountaineering, parachuting, and trips to military installations."11
Fourteen seniors received their commission during the mid-year ceremony in January 1971. A month later a triumphant "Pershing Rifles" Company returned to the University of Delaware with a total of seven trophies. One second place, four third place, one fourth place, and one ninth place. Another third place trophy for best overall company, won in the Manhattan Invitation Drill meet was added to the display case two weeks later.
About 200 cadets busied themselves in "a 3 day field training exercise at Fort Dix, NJ during April 16-18 preparing for their summer camp at Indian-town. The 85 man junior company was opposed during tactical training by a combined force of 110 cadets from the ROTC Ranger Company and 'Pershing Rifles' drill team."12 "The annual University of Delaware ROTC brigade review held on May I"13 terminated the battalion activities for the school year.
On November 19, 1971 and November 21, 1972 the senior cadets participated in their annual Dining-In at the Officer's Club of the Bainbridge Naval Training Center. Today, most of the Dining-Ins are held at the Dover AFB Officer's Club with invitations extended also to junior ROTC cadets. "Dining-In" is a traditional military event designed to promote cordiality, comrade¬ship, and esprit de corps. It provides a unique occasion for officers and their guests to meet socially at a formal military function. The traditional Dining-In was begun by the British in the early 1800's.
The regimental mess has passed into oblivion and dining-in"— that formal gathering of a unit's officers for evening of dining and comradeship— has all but disappeared with the officer's saber and the tri-corner hat. But the tradition has been preserved by many units as officers gather at least once a year for a ceremonial evening.
Origin of the custom probably arose in the British Army where dinner is still held regularly, and is indeed prescribed in Queen's Regulations. There, traditions have been established within the various regiments— in India one used to break the wine glasses after toasting the sovereign; two regiments drink the royal toast seated because they are descended from marine units where members bumped their heads on deck beams if they stood up; another passes around a champagne- filled solid silver bedroom piece captured from the personal baggage of Joseph Bonaparte at the Battle of Victoria in 1813.
While such colorful customs never were established in the U.S. Army, European customs were generally followed, and before World War I small posts had developed their own unbending rules of formal dining that called for formal dress, with no one allowed to be seated before arrival of the commanding officer. In the U.S. Army a more informal after-dinner smoker also became customary. This second phase was signaled when the commanding officer "removed the cloth" when served with his coffee. The evening begins with about one-half hour of informal conversation and refreshments. The colors are presented to the roll of drums by a color guard. A series of toasts are then presented by the host officer to the United States of America, by the junior officer present to the President of the United States. Further toasts are offered to the U.S. Army and to the host unit. The colors are then posted. The meal usually consists of four or five courses, but as many as seven sometimes served. Normally, there are no speeches.14
The dining-in practices not only prepare the eventual officers for future military functions, but also gives them an opportunity to roast cadre and fellow cadets. Punishment for alleged violations during the roast range from having to perform ludicrous physical stunts to drinking a prescribed amount from the grog bowl (a hideous concoction of various drinks).
Starting the new year, in January 1972 nine cadets received their Second Lieutenant bars. As part of their leadership training, first semester freshmen received a course on emergency first aid which has remained a part of today's curriculum beginning in February. Continuing their success, the "Pershing Rifles" won third place in the "trick squad drill competition"15 that same month. More trophies were added the following year; a third, fifth, and seventh. Ten months later four members of the "Pershing Rifles" served as the color guard during pre-game ceremonies at the Philadelphia Eagles— Washington Redskins football game at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia.
"In an unprecedented move in March 1972, the University ROTC program announced the removal of all restrictions on cadet hair length."16 Sharply declined enrollment figures in ROTC and a less than 30% retention rate for the four year program and commissioning caused considerable concern. A detailed study surveying the general students' attitude had been conducted by the Military Science Department the previous semester had revealed considerable student opposition on the issue of hair length regulations. These factors caused the department "to consider program changes designed to promote cadet morale and foster a more favorable attitude toward ROTC among students in general."17
Since commissioning has been and is being conducted every May coinciding with commencement, it is not necessary to reiterate this point on a continual basis.
Comments by the PMS COL Joseph E. Beavers extolled the virtues of ROTC in March of 1973. According to the Colonel, significant drops in the ROTC program were attributed to the lack of understanding and possible benefits of ROTC. He also felt that individuals who chose ROTC of their own volition would make better officers. As expected, those comments did not go without the customary negative rebuttal. March and May brought more honors to the fabulous "Pershing Rifles" winning two second-place honors the first month and one "first place and three other trophies in various divisions"18 the next month.
CHAPTER 9 WOMEN NOW ELIGIBLE To ENROLL IN ROTC
A successful test program was conducted by the Army in 1972 at 10 colleges and universities in the United States. The subsequent ruling allowed women "to enroll in the Army Reserve Officers Training Corps program at the University of Delaware." 1 Unlike some programs, women selecting ROTC are required to perform the same as their male counterparts.
Cadets received some first hand experience in "ground to air communication and with helicopters themselves" 2 during the November 1973 "leadership lab." In a two part series appearing in the April issue of the Review, the PMS once again alluded to the numerous benefits derived from the ROTC program obligation to serve the country as well as attaining an edge in job experience. Of course not everyone agreed with his opinions. Refuting claims ranged from not getting much out of the course, too regimented, self-interested (Army), slanted courses to the actual removal of ROTC from campus. Possibly a combination of the positive publicity created by the ROTC, the ROTC enrollment to quadruple in the fall of 1974. More and more women were seeking the out of the ordinary opportunities that the ROTC had to offer. By now "women compromised 30 percent of the overall ROTC enrollment." 3 Then, as well as today, repelling and other adventure training is a drawing card for the young minds searching to do some¬thing different. If nothing else is gained through the training, it will increase your self-confidence.
Summer Camp 1976 will remain a memorable one for Delaware ROTC cadets. That year they placed first among the 104 colleges and universities. "The 11 member Delaware ROTC group outscored students from nationally famous military schools as the Citadel and Virginia Military Institute (VMI). ROTC students are ranked on a combination of performance and peer evaluation scores based on six weeks of trials at Advanced Camp at Fort Bragg, NC." 4 Although not equalling the status of their predecessors, succeeding cadets have continually placed well each year. The intensive summer training camp is attended by all ROTC cadets in the United States between their junior and senior years of college. Camp activities are designed to develop leadership abilities by providing military training for the cadets. At the same time, the Army has its only chance to assemble all ROTC cadets together to compare and evaluate them. Cadets in the program encounter such conditions as only four-five hours of sleep a night, meals taken on the run, and physically exhausting tactical problems. Activities during camp include live firing of almost all the Army's weapons from hand grenades to howitzers, practice in small unit tactics, map and compass work, mountaineering, obstacle courses, hand-to-hand combat, and numerous physical endurance tests.
The military training is an important experience for the cadets. They are not expected to become experts as a result of the instruction. Instead, a cadet gains a familiarity with the general missions of the Army and the various methods and equipment used to meet those missions. 5
Of the total 2,400 cadets attending Summer Camp, 250 were women and one of those was from Delaware. According to her, "no adjustments were made for women. Camp was physically exhausting for both sexes, and they had to work very hard to keep up. She added that she thought it was a good experience and that she accomplished a lot." 6 The following year, 10 women compromised the senior class. Since the acceptance of women into the program, several females have held positions of command to include Battalion Commander; the highest position a cadet can hold (Cadet Lieutenant Colonel). Still others have performed every function of their male counterparts.
School year 1973 may well have been the last time that the famous "Pershing Rifles" performed to any extent. No further mention is made of either winning exploits or performances. A check with former ROTC students, cadre, and remaining records show that the team had disbanded by 1975. Several efforts to increase interest in 1974 and 1975 apparently failed to materialize and the "Pershing Rifles" of Delaware just became a memory. Increased interest in ROTC at Salisbury State College in school year 1978-79 brought the University under the umbrella of the University of Delaware as a cross-enrolled school. The following year a cadre member from the University of Delaware Military Science Department was assigned to the Salisbury State College initiating a special two year program with less than 10 cadets. By school year 1980-81, five lieutenants came from Salisbury State College. Today six cadre members are permanently assigned to the College with a yearly commissioning rate of approximately 15 lieutenants. In January 1986 Delaware State College followed Salisbury State College's example with seven cadets enrolled in the ROTC program. By 1989 the number has reached twenty students. Once a week a cadre member from the University of Delaware teaches underclassmen ROTC classes, while the juniors and seniors attend Military Science classes at the University of Delaware twice a week.
An out of the ordinary event did however, occur in February 1989. On that date the ROTC detachment became the proud owner of a five lane indoor air rifle/pistol range. Looking for an Eagle Scout project, Michael J. Wysock saw the basement of Mechanical Hall as more than just a place of debris in December of 1987. His idea was brought to fruition after having spent almost 200 hours of planning and physical labor, assisted by over thirty scouts, cadets, and cadre. Within the past decade until the present, the ROTC program has become an accepted presence on campus. Those that are searching for that something extra during their college career may find the answer in ROTC. With this acceptance comes a yearly routine of performance for the ROTC unit. Freshmen enrollment in the fall of each year is approximately 150 students. Further encouragement is generated through the availability of 4, 3, 2, and 1 1/2 (Nursing students only) year scholarships. Preparation for summer camp of the junior class is conducted in April with a weekend of field training exercises, followed by six weeks of summer camp (Advanced Camp) between June through August. Directly preceding the spring semester, a change of command ceremony is conducted. This allows the best cadet of the second semester to be the cadet battalion commander replacing the best cadet of the first semester. All of the other senior cadets are also assigned various command, staff, or other positions of responsibility. Beginning of May is normally set aside for the award ceremonies honoring outstanding cadets from all four years. Each school year is concluded with the commissioning of the new lieutenants in the end of May. It should be reiterated that the first two years of the ROTC program are totally voluntary and without any obligation or commitment. If after the first two years a student wishes to continue with the program and qualifies, the last two years are completed under contract. This is an acknowledgement that the cadet will serve the military for a specific period of time. Upon commissioning, the new lieutenant chooses either active or reserve duty. Those students that were remiss in selecting Military Science in their freshman or sophomore year may qualify to enter the program in their junior year. Students wishing to enter the program under this option must first successfully complete six weeks of basic camp.
Taking pride in the fact that the Department of Military Science, which was officially adopted in 1889, will celebrate its one hundredth anniversary; grandiose plans are being formulated to mark this festive occasion. An all out weekend is planned in recognition of this achievement in November 1989.
CHAPTER 10 RECOGNIZING AND REWARDING OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE
Whether or not we as human beings like to admit it, human nature being what it is seeks gratification through peer recognition; Maslow's ego satisfier. In close parallel to the civilian sector, the Army ROTC also rewards its soldiers (cadets) for a job well done. This recognition is rendered with various forms of reward that are proudly displayed on the uniforms worn by the cadets. By no means restricted to only these, the most frequently awarded are ribbons, certificates, and medals. The following is a summary of the types of awards and the required eligibility for each.
ANNUAL HONORS AND AWARDS FOR ROTC CADETS THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPERIOR CADET DECORATION AWARD A medal and certificate presented by the Department of the Army to the outstanding ROTC cadet in each class in recognition of high academic standing, military and academic leadership, and the demonstrated qualities of discipline, courtesy, character, and the potential qualities of an officer.
THE MEN'S CLASS OF '23 AWARD A monetary award presented by the Class of 1923 to outstanding cadets in each Military Science class for all-around excellence in the ROTC program studies and activities.
THE GEORGE C. MARSHALL AWARD Presented by the George C. Marshall Research Foundation in recognition of the outstanding senior in military studies and leadership in ROTC at the University of Delaware.
THE ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY MEDAL Awarded by the Association of the United States Army to the junior cadet who has contributed the most through academic grades and leadership toward advancing the standing of the ROTC unit at the University of Delaware.
THE AMERICAN DEFENSE PREPAREDNESS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT MEDAL A medal and ribbon presented to a senior cadet who has demonstrated outstanding leadership qualities, exceptional performance in military skills, and interest in national security.
THE COLONEL EDWARD G. ALLEN AWARD This award is presented in memory of Colonel Edward G. Alien to a sophomore or junior cadet who has demonstrated outstanding leadership, moral character, and academic excellence.
THE COLONEL GEORGE H. SEITZ, JR. AWARD Medals presented by the Reserve Officers Association to three cadets who have demonstrated outstanding qualities of scholarship, leadership, moral character, and high aptitude for military service. These awards are presented in memory of Colonel George H. Seitz, Jr., University of Delaware Class of 1926.
THE COLONEL EUGENE MILLS AWARD A monetary award presented by the Newark Chapter of the Retired Officers Association in memory of Colonel Eugene Mills to a senior cadet who has demonstrated outstanding characteristics of leadership and exceptional dedication to service in the ROTC program at the University of Delaware.
THE LIEUTENANT CLARKE CHURCHMAN AWARD A gold medal and monetary award presented by the Delaware State Society, Daughters of the American Revolution to the cadet who demonstrates the highest proficiency in Military Science.
THE AMERICAN LEGION AWARD An award presented by the American Legion, J. Allison O'Daniel Post #10, to four cadets who demonstrate general military excellence and scholarship excellence.
THE AMERICAN VETERANS OF FOREIGN WARS OF THE USA AWARD An award presented by the Veterans of Foreign Wars,J. Allison O'Daniel Post #475, to a cadet who has demonstrated outstanding leadership and excelled in Military Science.
THE AMERICAN VETERANS OF WORLD WARS MEDAL A medal pendant and ribbon bar presented by the AMVETS National Commander, to a junior or senior cadet in recognition of diligence in the discharge of duties and willingness to serve both God and country.
THE GENERAL J. ERNEST SMITH PRIZE A monetary award presented in memory of General J. Ernest Smith to the cadets who attained the highest grades in Military Science classes.
THE COLONEL EDGAR PARKE REESE AWARD This award is presented in memory of Colonel Edgar Parke Reese, University of Delaware Class of 1929, to a senior cadet who has demonstrated qualities of leadership and moral character while in the discharge of duties.
THE RETIRED OFFICERS ASSOCIATION ROTC MEDAL Awarded by the Retired Officers Association to the senior cadet who has shown exceptional potential for military leadership, high moral character, and a definite aptitude for military science.
THE NATIONAL SOJOURNERS AWARD An award presented by the National Sojourners, DuPont Chapter #78, to an outstanding sophomore or junior cadet who contributed the most to encourage and to demonstrate Americanism within the corps and on the campus. • THE ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY MILITARY HISTORY AWARD Awarded by the Association of the United States Army to a cadet who has distinguished himself in the area of military history and academic leadership as a member of the University of Delaware ROTC.
THE DELAWARE STATE SOCIETY DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIST BRONZE MEDAL AND MONETARY AWARD. A bronze medal and monetary award presented to an outstanding cadet enrolled in the College of Arts and Science.
AREA OFFICERS WIVES CLUB AWARD Presented to an outstanding female cadet in the senior class who would be an excellent officer in the United States Army.
THE DELAWARE SOCIETY SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AWARD A medal and monetary award presented by the Delaware Society Sons of the American Revolution to an Outstanding cadet for all-around excellence in the ROTC program studies and activities.
THE MILITARY ORDER OF WORLD WARS AWARD A gold medal awarded to a junior cadet, a silver medal awarded to a sophomore cadet, and a bronze medal awarded to a freshman cadet for overall improvement in military studies during the school year.
THE DELAWARE CHAPTER OF THE DAUGHTERS OF THE FOUNDERS AND PATRIOTS OF AMERICA AWARD A medal and monetary award 'presented to a freshman or sophomore cadet who excelled in subjects related to American Military History.
THE GENERAL SOCIETY OF THE WAR OF 1812 AWARD A ribbon and certificate presented to a sophomore cadet in good academic standing with high moral character.
THE PROFESSOR OF MILITARY SCIENCE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE AWARD Awarded to a cadet in each Military Science class who has demonstrated excellence in leadership assignments, academic standing, and voluntary activities.
INSTRUCTOR DISTINGUISHED SERVICE AWARD Awarded by year group instructors to a cadet who has consistently been outstanding in leadership and academic activities.
LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE AWARD A plaque and ribbon presented to a junior cadet who has distinguished military skills training and has shown exceptional leadership ability.
97TH ARCOM OUTSTANDING SMP AWARD A plaque presented to the senior cadet who has demonstrated outstanding leadership qualities while performing as a member of the Simultaneous Membership Program.
THE NATIONAL GUARD AWARD An award presented by the Adjutant General of the State of Delaware to the outstanding senior of the ROTC program. It is a cased colonial Army saber and certificate.
RANGER CHALLENGE CERTIFICATES A patch and certificate awarded to selected ROTC Cadet Rangers who demonstrated exceptional knowledge, skill, physical stamina, and intestinal fortitude at the 1987 Ranger Challenge Shoot- Out.
THE "IRON MIKE" PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST AWARD A plaque and ribbon presented to both the junior and senior male and female cadet with the highest Army Physical Fitness Training Test average for the school year.
DELAWARE STATE COLLEGE LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE AWARD A plaque and ribbon presented to those Delaware State College cadets who have, distinguished themselves in military skills training and have shown exceptional leadership ability.
NATIONAL DEFENSE TRANSPORTATION AWARD This award, which consists of a medal pendant, is presented annually to approximately 20 most outstanding MSIV Cadets enrolled in CMS Units.
ARMY ROTC RIBBONS OF THE "FIGHTIN' BLUE HEN BATTALION" Outstanding achievement while a cadet in the Army ROTC is continually recognized and certainly adds to the esprit de corps. ROTC ribbons earned are worn by the cadets only while they are in ROTC and are not transferable to the Regular Army or its components. Ribbons are customarily awarded in front of the peer group, thus adding incentive for other cadets to strive for the recognition.
SUPERIOR ADVANCED CAMP PERFORMANCE RIBBON Awarded in the fall semester to cadets who finish in the top 15% of the Delaware cadets in Advanced Camp scored events. Criteria for selection is final overall advanced camp score. Delaware cadets will be considered separately from Salisbury State "cadets.
ROTC ACADEMIC CADET RIBBON Is awarded each semester to any cadet with a cumulative ROTC grade point index of 3.75 or higher.
SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE RIBBON Is awarded to any cadet who has a fulltime final semester grade point index of 3.25 in all subjects (Dean's List).
PMS DISTINGUISHED SERVICE RIBBON Is awarded to the cadet in each military science class who has demonstrated excellence in academic standing, leadership assignments, and voluntary activities within the ROTC program.
INSTRUCTOR'S DISTINGUISHED SERVICE RIBBON Is awarded to those cadets from their respective classes who have consistently been outstanding in both academic and leadership activities.
MAXIMUM PT TEST RIBBON Is presented to each cadet who scores the maximum 300 points on the record Physical Fitness Test. In addition those cadets will be enrolled on the PMS's 300 club list.
PT PROFICIENCY RIBBON Is presented to each cadet who scores 290 points and above on the record Physical Fitness Test.
DISTINGUISHED ADVANCED RANGER RIBBON Awarded in the spring semester to advanced course Delaware Rangers for outstanding leadership contribution to Ranger activities. Selection is determined by the Ranger Commander and Cadre Ranger Advisor.
RANGER CHALLENGE RIBBON Awarded in the fall semester to Delaware Ranger cadets who participate in and successfully complete the brigade (Area IV) Ranger Shoot-Out competition earning the Ranger Challenge Tab and Certificate.
BEST BASIC RANGER RIBBON Awarded in the spring semester to a Delaware Ranger Basic Cadet (first year active participation) who is the most improved in Ranger activities and leadership contributions. Selection is determined by the Ranger Company Commander.
RANGER PARTICIPATION RIBBON Awarded in the spring semester to a cadet for active participation in the Delaware Rangers. Criteria for selection is one full year's active participation and advancement, and is awarded by the Ranger Commander.
ROTC COLOR GUARD RIBBON Awarded in the fall semester to ROTC cadets who have actively participated in the ROTC Color Guard for two or more semesters. Selection for this award is determined by the Color Guard Commander and Cadre Advisor.
ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT WREATH Is awarded each semester to cadets who are in the top 10% of their Military Science class. Criteria for selections is semester ROTC class standing. Authorized for wear only during the following semester. These will be turned in to the cadet awards coordinator at the end if each semester.
RIFLE TEAM PARTICIPATION RIBBON Awarded to cadets for active participation as a Delaware Rifle team member. Criteria for selection is one full Rifle Team season participation and is awarded by the Rifle Team Cadre Advisor in the spring semester.
ORIENTEERING PARTICIPATION RIBBON Is awarded to any cadet who successfully completes three orienteering meets conducted with the Delaware Valley Orienteering Association.
ROTC VOLUNTARY SERVICE RIBBON Is awarded each semester to cadets for participation in voluntary ROTC activities (i.e., Color Guard, nominees are recommended by the activity cadre advisor).
LONGEVITY—TWO YEAR ENROLLMENT RIBBON Awarded to each cadet who successfully completes four consecutive semesters of Military Science. BASIC CAMP COMPLETION RIBBON Is awarded to those cadets who have successfully completed and graduated from Basic Camp.
RECRUITING & RETENTION RIBBON This award is made annually to the most outstanding cadets at this institution who are directly responsible for the enrollment/retention of students in the ROTC program. CRITERIA: a. Enrolls at least one student in the program. b. Or retains at least 75% of the class where he/she is the TA (training assistant). c. Recommended jointly by the PMS and the enrollment officer. d. Demonstrate outstanding leadership qualities.
MILITARY PROFICIENCY AWARD This award will be given to the top 5 percent of cadets in each camp cycle according to the individual's combined military proficiency scores as prescribed by HQ, TRADOC.
PHYSICAL PROFICIENCY AWARD This award will be presented to each cadet who scores in the top 10 percentile of points on the record Physical Fitness Test as prescribed by HQ, TRADOC.
REGION COMMANDER'S LEADERSHIP AWARD This award will be provided by the region commander responsible for the camp to the most outstandng cadet in each camp cycle. Criteria for the award will be determined by the camp commander.
CAMP COMMANDER'S LEADERSHIP AWARD This award will consist of a citation signed by the Advanced Camp commander, to be awarded to the number one cadet in each company as determined by their total camp evaluation scores. In event of ties, duplicate awards will be given.
PLATOON LEADERSHIP AWARD This award will consist of a citation signed by the Advanced Camp commander, to be awarded to the number one cadet in each training Platoon in each cycle by their total camp evaluation scores. In event of ties, duplicate awards will be given.
CHAPTER 11 RECRUITING AND RETENTION EFFORTS OF THE ROTC
To further the interest in ROTC as well as enhance the retention figure of its cadets? the program has devised methods and means to accomplish both. Extra¬curricular and Special Interest activities are scheduled or made available during the school year for all cadets.
OPEN HOUSE It serves a duel purpose, with its primary emphasis on recruiting by generating interest. Displays of military hardware, information booths (tables) on ROTC, rappelling, and a friendly social atmosphere is rounded out by a free Bar B-Q. These events are customarily held in the fall in conjunction with other Open House events on campus and in spring during the drop-add period.
TAIL GATES Tail gates are thought of as a socializer and a retention tool. This gives cadets of all four classes a chance to get together, make friends and acquaintances, and meet the entire teaching staff. The favorite part of the event naturally is the free food. Approximately three to four of these functions are scheduled during football season.
BOWLING NIGHT/SKI TRIP Approximately two bowling nights and one ski trip are planned for the fall and winter of each year in an effort to instill a source of belonging and camaraderie. Cadets of all four years are encouraged to attend and to bring a friend. Extracurricular and Special Interest-activities are scheduled or made available during the school year for all cadets.
LEADERSHIP LAB Leadership Labs were introduced during the '85-'86 school year, and have become a permanent training aid for the Battalion. The entire Battalion attends the exercise, approximately three labs are scheduled per semester; Drill And Ceremony, First Aid, and the Lensatic Compass. Leadership Lab Coordinator is an assigned position for a MS IV student.
ARMY—AIR FORCE SERIES In the spirit of the academy rivalries the Array- Air Force traveling trophy was initiated during the '85-'86 school year. The trophy is awarded to the winner of the series which includes; football, basketball, and softball. After the athletic competition the two pro¬grams enjoy themselves at a joint picnic and cookout.
SCIENCE OLYMPIAD The Science Olympiad is a state wide high school competition for exceptional students. Each high school sends a team of its' best students to participate in the academic skills. University of Delaware ROTC provides personnel support by supplying students and Cadre. This offers an excellent opportunity to get in touch with high quality college bound students.
BOY’S STATE Boy’s State provides high school students oriented towards politics, an opportunity to experience first hand State Government procedures and positions. Students elect each other to posts such as Governor and Lieutenant Governor and conduct business as usual. The Administrative NCO (Non-Commissioned Officer) of the ROTC serves as counselor and is in charge of the students.
RANGER PLATOON The Ranger Platoon is a strong organization at the University of Delaware. It provides invaluable leader¬ship and military skills training to all its members and sets the standard for the rest of the battalion. Being selected as a competitor representing the University of Delaware ROTC in the "Ranger Stakes" is the annual high point.
ORIENTEERING CLUB The Orienteering Club was initiated in the '85-'86 school year and continues to draw Cadre and Cadets interested in improving land navigation skills and competing with other members. The ROTC competes in the DVOA (Delaware Valley Orienteering Association) and attends 2-3 meets a semester.
COLOR GUARD The Color Guard provides the Battalion with a trained Color Guard unit for both its needs and public relations to outside organizations. Annually the unit attends the St. Patrick's Day parade in Washington D. C. Numerous other events are scheduled each year, including parades, charity events, and ROTC support. The '86-'87 school year saw the emergence of a Color Guard Coordinator as an assigned task of an MS IV student.
SCABBARD AND BLADE The Scabbard and Blade provides recognition of superior students in both the' military and academic world. Greater emphasis has been placed on the unit and much more is being done to use its assets.
INTRAMDRALS Sports in the ROTC program allow Cadre and Cadets of all classes to compete together and thereby increase camaraderie, retention, and the winning spirit. We are becoming more and more active in the University's intramural program, fielding teams in: football, soccer, and ultimate frisbee.
WEIGHTLIFTING The Weightlifting club has become one of the most popular activities in the Battalion. The Weightlifting Club allows Cadre and Cadets to workout with experienced personnel. A Weightlifting room located in the building is supplied with free weights and numerous training aids.
SHOOTING CLUB The newly constructed air-rifle/pistol range provides an opportunity for cadets to sharpen their shooting skills. Those who display good shooting skills may be selected for the ROTC competitive marksmanship team. Plans call for the team "to participate in both postal and shoulder to shoulder matches with other ROTC air-rifle teams. Rifles and pellets are made available to all cadets who desire to shoot.
The mid 19th century was a period of uncertainty for the survival of the Delaware College. With the Morrill Act passed into law on July 2, 1862, the Trustees of the college realized the chance of survival for the institu¬tion. Up to that point there had not been a reason to look at the military. Since the institution's existence dependent upon the benefits derived from the Morrill Act, military tactics training was a price they were willing to pay. In 1867, Delaware College became the land grand college of the State and with it the initia¬tion of military tactics.
Almost two decades passed, often consisting of inadequate military training, until military tactics was incorporated as a part of the curriculum. In 1889 the position of Professor of Military Tactics was fully recognized as a member of the college faculty. The professionalism of the Regular Army instructors rein-stilled a certain pride and a desire for many to join the program. In September of 1917, the ROTC (Reserve Officer Training Corps) established by the National Defense Act of 1916 became an addition to the collegiate life.
Since America had already been involved in the first major conflict of World War I for five months, the pro¬gram did not produce its full potential. However, the University did contribute beyond its call for the total war effort of America's wars in the 20th century. Not only were the University facilities made available to the War Department, but many of the former cadets and students saw active duty during both World Wars, the Korean Conflict, and Vietnam.
"By the beginning of World War I, ROTC had placed over 90,000 officers in the Reserve pool, most of whom later served on active duty. At the out-bread of World War II, more than 56,000 Army ROTC officers were called to duty within a six-month period. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 had served. Since 1945, more than 358,000 officers have received their commissions through Army ROTC." 1
The fall of 1951 saw a surprise addition to the U.S. Army, women were now admitted into the Regular Army and if qualified, were commissioned in the WAC (Women's Army Corps). Again the program achieved respectability and considerable enrollment.
National opposition to U.S. military involvement in Vietnam also reared its head on the University of Delaware campus. The Department of Military Science weathered the storm of demonstration, firebombing, and walk-off and walk-ons during the end of the 1960's. By the end of the decade, ROTC had become voluntary, while the beginning of the 70's saw the formerly all male program turning co-ed with the first female enrolling.
Today, Army ROTC enjoys the respect and acceptance of faculty members and students alike. The Military training program enhances the leadership qualities of its cadets to function well in both the civilian and military sectors. Graduates come from over 300 host institutions and more than 1000 colleges and universities through cross-enrollment and extension centers.
Technological advances in the military, demanding sharp minds and competent leadership for future involvement have placed the Army in competition with the civilian sector. To meet these goals, the Army has assumed the attitude of big business. Qualified individuals are offered the opportunity to apply for a scholarship and a possible officer career in the Regular Army or the Reserve Components. Cadets are encouraged to stay in the program and are paid $100.00 a month in their junior and senior year. Those graduates and newly commissioned officers that select active duty will find their salary commensury with the civilian sector. Others who decide to continue their civilian career serve as citizen soldiers for a prescribed period of time. Many successful business people attribute their achievements to their ROTC training.
APPENDIX A Professors of Military Science 1870 to Present
1870-1872: Jules Macheret (former French soldier) 1870-1872: Prof. Edward Porter 1872-1882: Unknown (no one was specifically designated) 1882-1883: Prof. Frederick Chester 1884-1885: Wesley Webb 1885-1888: Unknown (no one was specifically designated) 1889-1891: First Lieutenant George LeRoy Brown, llth U.S. INF 1891-1892: Lieutenant E. C. Brooks, 8th U.S. Cavalry 1892-1897: Lieutenant J. H. Frier, 17 U.S. Cavalry 1897-1899: Lieutenant Walter H. Gordon, 18 U.S. INF 1899-1900: Lieutenant Charles H. Cabaniss Jr., U.S. Army Retired 1900-1902: Captain E. S. Avis, U.S. Array Retired 1900-1902: Captain Treadwell W. Moore, 21st U.S. INF 1900-1902: Captain Edward W. McCaskey, 21st U.S. INF 1900-1902: Lieutenant Edgar S. Stayer, 23rd U.S. INF 1900-1902: First Lieutenant Francis B. Eastman, 25th U.S. INF 1913-1916: First Lieutenant Charles C. Hewman, 3rd U.S. INF 1916-1919: Colonel Edwin P Pendleton, U.S. Army Retired 1919-1920: Captain Carleton Coulter Jr., U.S. INF 1920-1924: Major Lathe Burton Row, U.S. INF 1924-1927: Lieutenant Colonel Noble J. Wiley, U.S. INF 1927-1932: Lieutenant Colonel Robert P. Glassburn, U.S. Coast Artillery Corps 1932-1934: Lieutenant Colonel Donald M. Ashbridge, U.S. Coast Artillery Corps 1934-1937: Major Donald Langley Dutton, U.S. Coast Artillery Corps 1937-1941: Lieutenant Colonel:Reamer W. Argo, U.S Coast Artillery Corps 1941-1945: Colonel Donald M. Ashbridge, U.S.A. CAL (Retired) 1945-1946: Captain Donald R. Norton Jr., his second term 1946-1949: Colonel Randolph T. Pendleton, U.S.A. CAL 1949-1950: Colonel Layton A Ziramer, U.S.A. CAL 1950-1951: Colonel Francis A. Hause, U.S.A. Artillery 1951-1953: Colonel Joseph A. Haffer, U.S.A. Artillery 1953-1956: Colonel Eugene W. Hiddleston, U.S.A. Artillery 1956-1959: Colonel Daniel N. Sundt, U.S.A. Artillery 1959-1962: Lieutenant Colonel Gerald H. Ragsdale, U.S.A.INF 1962-1968: Colonel Edward G. .Alien 1968-1971: Colonel Frank J. Nemethy, U.S. INF 1971-1974: Colonel Joseph E. Beavers 1974-1979: LTC George W. Baily, PMS and Chairperson 1979-1982: LTC Trevor N. Dupuy Jr., PMS and Chairperson 1982-1985: LTC William D. Williams 1985-1988: LTC Richard W. Tarpley (also former cadre in 1974 - 1977) 1988-1992: LTC Michael C. Wilgen 1992-1995: LTC David W. Harris US CM 1995-1998: LTC Paul W. Rorison US CM 1998-2001: LTC Paul A. Pusecker VI US AG 2001-2004: LTC Katherine Hewitt 2004-2005: LTC Robert S. Brown AV Jan 2005-Jun 2005: LTC Robert Sewell AV 2005-2006: LTC Dane S. Tkacs EN
NOTES Introduction 1. Hackett, General John, "The Profession of Arms", New York: Mac Millan Publishing Co., Inc., 1983. p.9 2. Ibid., p.9 3. Crocker, Lawrence P., LTC, "The Array Officer's Guide" 43rd edition. Harrisburg: Stockpole Books, 1985. p.181. 4. Review, February 22, 1933. 5. Ibid. 6. Cadet Command Pam 145-1, August 86. pp.1-3. Chapter 1: 1. "Land-Grant Colleges", The New Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia, 1951, XXI, 7675. 2. Morgen, George, "Sunny Days". Newrak: Univ of Del., 1935. p.95. 3. Ibid., p.95. 4. Review, March 1, 1933. 5. Del. College Review, September 1882, p.6. 6 . Ibid. , p. 6-, 7. Faculty Minutes, March 20, 1987. 8. Review, March 1, 1933. 9. Munroe, John A., "The University of Delaware: A History". Newark: Univ of Del., 1986. p.141. 10. Del. College Catalog 1889. p. 37. 11. Review, October 9, 1925. 12. Review, March 1, 1933. 13. Faculty Minutes, March 22, 1892. 14. Review, March 1, 1933. 15. Faculty Minutes, March 17, 1903. Chapter 2 1. Review, March 1, 1933. 2. Review, January 1911. p.29. 3. Review, March 1, 1933. 4. Review, December 1911. p.26. 5. Review, December 1911. p.18. 6. Ibid. 7. Ibid. 8. Review, March 1, 1933. Chapter 3 1. Review, October 31, 1916. 2. Alimni News, June 1917. p.10. 3. Faculty Minutes, March 5, 1918. 4. Review, March 1, 1933. 5. Del. College Year Book, 1919. pp.273-274, 6. Review, March 8, 1933. 7. Ibid. 8. Del. College Year Book, 1919. p.274. 9. Review, April 15, 1919. 10. Ibid. 11. Review, March 8, 1933. 12. Ibid. 13. Review, May 23, 1923. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid. 16. Ibid. 17. Review, June 9, 1923. 18. Review, October 3, 1923. 19. Ibid. Chapter 4 1. Review, February 29, 1924 2. Ibid., p.3. 3. Review, March 7, 1924. 4. Ibid., p.3. 5. Review, October 1, 1925. 6. Ibid. 7. Ibid. 8. Review, January 22, 1926. 9. Review, March 12, 1926. 10. Review, April 30, 1926. 11. Ibid. 12. Ibid. 13. Review, March 11, 1927. 14. Ibid. 15. Review, March 11, 1927. 16. Review, November 11, 1927. 17. Review, February 10, 1928. 18. Review, March 2, 1928. 19. Review, May 11, 1928. 20. Review, October 26, 1928. 21. Review, March 26, 1929. 22. Review, March 22, 1929. 23. Review, May 10, 1929. 24. Review, April 19, 1929. 25. Review, May 3, 1929. 26. Ibid. 27. Review, October 19, 1929. 28. Review, October 25, 1929. 29. Review, May 2, 1930. 30. Faculty Notice, October 1, 1930. 31. Institute of Heraldry, U.S. Army, August 28, 1979 32. Ibid. 33. Review, March 8, 1933. 34. Review, May 18, 1931. 35. Review, May 25, 1931. 36. Ibid. 37. Review, September 29, 1979. 38. Ibid. 39. Review, October 12, 1932. 40. Ibid. 41. Ibid. 42. Review, December 14, 1932. 43. Review, December 20, 1933. 44. Review, March 8, 1933. 45. Review, October 4, 1933. 46. Review, May 11, 1934. 47. Review, May 2, 1934. 48. Review, October 2, 1936. 49. Review, January 12, 1940. 50. Review, March 1, 1940. 51. Review, April 26, 1940. 52. Ibid. 53. Review, January 12, 1940. 54. Review, September 15, 1942. 55. Review, March 19, 1943. 56. Review, September 22, 1942. 57. Review, December 5, 1944. 58. Review, March 13, 1946. Chapter 5 1. Carlton Papers, V-19, 1777-1778. 2. Review, November 9, 1945. 3. Review, April 24, 1946. 4. Review, March 20, 1946. 5. Review, April 17, 1947. 6. Carlton Papers, 1645, May 29, 1947, 7. Review, October 23, 1947. 8. Review, January 13, 1949. 9. Carlton Papers, 974, April 15, 1949, 10. Review, October 7, 1947. 11. Review, September 30, 1949. 12. Ibid., p.8. 13. Review, November 18, 1948. Chapter 6 1. Review, December 15, 1949. 2. Review, March 17, 1950. 3. Review, April 14, 1950. 4. Review, April 25, 1950. 5. Ibid., p.2. 6. Review, September 22, '1950. 7. Review, October 7, 1950. 8. Review, November 3, 1950. 9. Review, February 9, 1951. 10. Review, March 9, 1951. 11. Ibid. 12. Review, March 23, 1951. 13. Review, January 11, 1952. 14. Review, September 25, 1953. 15. Cornerstone, Univ of Del. 1953. 16. Ibid. 17. Review, October 6, 1954. 18. Review, March 11, 1955. 19. Review, March 18, 1955. 20. Review, November 4, 1955. 21. Review, February 24, 1956. 22. Review, May 11, 1956. 23. Review, November 9, 1956. 24. Review, April 12, 1957. 25. Ibid. 26. Review, February 28, 1958. 27. Review, February 19, 1960. Chapter 7 1. Review, January 6, 1961. 2. Review, March 3, 1961; 3. Review, December 8, 1961. 4. Review, November 8, 1963. 5. Review, April 10, 1964. 6. Review, October 22, 1964. 7. Review, February 26, 1965. 8. Review, April 1, 1966. 9. Review, April 16, 1965. 10. Review, November 12, 1965. 11. Review, April 12, 1967. 12. Review, October 10, 1967. 13. Review, October 13, 1967. 14. Review, October 20, 1967. 15. Review, December 12, 1967. 16. Review, January 12, 1968. Chapter 8 1. Review, February 21, 1969. 2. Review, January 10, 1969. 3. Review, October 22, 1969. 4. Review, October 6, 1969. 5. Review, April 25, 1969. 6. Review, May 9, 1969. 7. Review, May 15, 1970. 8. Ibid. 9. Delaware News Release, June 1, 1970. p.354. 10. Delaware News Release, November 12, 1971. p.730, 11. Delaware News Release, December 9, 1970. p.720. 12. Delaware News Release, April 16, 1971. p.316. 13. Delaware News Release, April 28, 1971. p.346. 14. Student Handout, SH21-1, May 1985. 15. Delaware News Release, December 24, 1972. p.151. 16. Review, March 31, 1972. 17. Ibid. 18. Delaware News Release, May 3, 1973. p.317. Chapter 9 1. Delaware News Release, June 13, 1973. p.383. 2. Review, November 16, 1973. 3. Review, November 8, 1974. 4. Delaware News Release, October 13, 1976. p.521. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. Conclusion 1. Recruiting Pamphlet Information (RPI) 677, June 1985 II Personal Interviews Interview with Hardman, Susan B., Captain, U.S.A., Ass't Prof, of Mil. Science at Salisbury State University and former ROTC cadet at University of Delaware, May 23, 1989. Interview with Laird, Robert W., Drum Major 1939, Captain 1940, Retired Design & Construction Project Manager Hercules Co., Wilmington DE, July 20, 1989 Interview with Lank, Joseph M. , Major General, DENG, (Ret), Adjutant General of the Delaware National Guard, April 20, 1989. Interview with Lovelace, David E., Major, U.S.A., (Ret), Ass't Prof, of Mil. Science and Enrollment Officer, ROTC at University of Delaware, May 12, 1989. Interview with Mark, Robert J., Major, U.S.A., (Ret), former Ass't Prof, of Mil. Science and Enrollment Officer, ROTC at University of Delaware, April 7, 1989. Interview with McDonald, John H., Brigadier General, Delaware Army National Guard, Commanding General of the 261st Signal Command DEARNG, May 10, 1989. Interview with Sundt, Daniel N. , Colonel, USA, (Ret), former Professor of Military Science, Army ROTC at University of Delaware, May 12, 1989 Interview with Tarpley, Richard W., Lieutenant Colonel, USA, (Ret), former Professor of Military Science, Army ROTC at University of Delaware, May 25, 1989 III War Department and Department of the Army Regulations and Periodic Administrative Publications A. Military Regulations and Field Manuals. No 145-4, Cadet Command Pamphlet, June 30, 1987 No 145-6, 1ROTCR Regulation, September 22, 1987 No 145-1, TRADOC Regulation, September 27, 1982 No 145-1, Cadet Command Pamphlet, August 1986 No FM 22-100, Military Leadership, October 1983 No FM 21-2, Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, May 1981 B. Army Training Programs and Program of Instruction Army Student Handbook SH 21-2, May 1985 Army Student Handbook SH 7-161, May 1985 IV Miscellaneous ROTC Documents ROTC Monthly Blitz Report. Local Files, 1978-1989 ROTC Marketing Action Plan,. Local Files, 1984-1989 ROTC Quarterly Enrollment Report. Local Files, 1982- 1989 Institute of Heraldry. U.S. Army, Alexandria, VA., August 28, 1979 V Miscellaneous Pamphlet and Studies Faculty Minutes, March 20, 1871 Faculty Minutes, March 20, 1887 Delaware College Catalog, 1889 Faculty Minutes, April 7, 1892 Faculty Minutes, March 17, 1903 Faculty Notice, March 28, 1905 Alumni News, June 1917 Faculty Minutes, March 5, 1918 Delaware College Year Book, 1919 Annual Report, No 2458, June 11, 1921, University of Arizona Faculty Notice, October 1, 1930 ROTC In Review, 1971-1972, University of Delaware U.S. Army War College Quarterly Parameters, Vol XVIII, No 2, Summer 1987 Delaware News Releases June & December 1970, April & November 1971, December 1972, May, June, & November 1973, November 1974, October 1976 Recruiting Pamphlet Information No 677, June 1985 VI Newspapers Review January & December 1911 October 1916 June 1917 March 1918 April 1919 June & October 1923 February & March 1924 October 1925 January, March & April 1926 February, March & November 1927 February, March, May & October 1928 March, April, May & October 1929 May & October 1930 May & September 1931 October & December 1932 March, October & December 1933 May 1934 October 1936 January, March & April 1940 January 1941 September 1942 March 1943 December 1944 November 1945 March & April 1946 April, May & October 1947 January, April, September, November & December 1949 March, April, September, October & November 1950 February & March 1951 January 1952 September 1953 October 1954 March & November 1955 February, May & November 1956 April 1957 February 1958 February 1960 January, March & December 1961 November 1963 April & October 1964 February, April & November 1965 April 1966 October & December 1967 January 1968 January, February, April, May & October 1969 May 1970 March 1972 November 1973 November 1974 VII Books Addington, Larry H., "The Patterns of War Since the Eighteenth Century." Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984 Catton, Bruce. "Bruce Catton's Civil War." New York: The Fairfax Press, 1984 Crocker, Lawrence P. LTC. "The Army Officer's Guide." 43rd Edition. Harrisburg: Stockpole Books, 1985
Hackett, General Sir John. "The Professor of Arms." New York: Mac Millan Publishing Co., Inc., 1983 Hirshauer, Victor Bruce. "The History of the Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps 1916-1973." Ann Arbor: University Microfilms Int'l, 1975 Morgan, George. "Sunny Days at Old Delaware." Newark: University of Delaware, 1934 Munroe, John A. "The University of Delaware: A History." Newark: University of Delaware., 1986 Nef, John U. "War and Human Progress: An Essay on the Rise of Industrial Civilization." New York: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1963 Regan, Geoffrey. "Great Military Disasters: A History of Incompetence on the Battlefield." New York: M. Evans and Co., Inc., 1987 Reynolds, Russel B. "The Officer's Guide." 1970-1971 Edition. Harrisburg: Stockpole Books, 1970 U.S. Army. "ROTCM 145-20: American Military History 1607-1958." Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959 U.S. Army. "ROTC 145-45: Readings for United States Defense Establishment." Washington D.C.: U.S. Army, 1972 Wakin, Nathan M. "War, Morality, and the Military Profession." Boulder: Westview Press, 1986 Weigley, Russel F. "History of the United States Army." New York: Mac Millan Publishing Co., Inc., 1967 Wright, Robert K., Jr. “The Continental Army.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army, 1986.